Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Psalms 35

By Joseph Benson


Verses 1-3
Psalms 35:1-3. Plead my cause, O Lord, &c. — Take my part, and maintain my cause against those that contend with me, and have raised war against me; for I am not able to defend myself, and have none else to appear for me. Take hold of shield and buckler — Wherewith to cover and defend me; that is, Be thou my protector, and preserve me under the shield of thy almighty providence. And stand up for my help — Oppose thyself to them, and keep off all their assaults. Draw out also the spear — Thy offensive as well as defensive weapons. Strike them through, as well as defend me. He alludes to the practice of soldiers in battle. Stop the way, &c. — In which they are advancing directly and furiously against me. Let them run upon the spear and the sword, if they continue to pursue me. Say unto my soul — That is, unto me, either, 1st, By thy Spirit assuring me of it; or, 2d, By thy providence effecting it. Confirm my soul in this belief, that thou wilt at last deliver me from this persecution.

Verse 4
Psalms 35:4. Let them be confounded — That is, frustrated and disappointed in their wicked designs and hopes against me. Or, they shall be disappointed: for this and the following verses, to Psalms 35:9, may be considered as a prediction of the ruin and destruction which were about to come on the enemies of David, and on those of the Messiah and his church. Accordingly, Dr. Waterland renders them all in the future, whereas our translation by putting them in the optative mood, has given them too much the appearance of imprecations, dictated by an implacable and revengeful spirit: Let them be turned back, or, they shall be turned back, that is, stopped, or hindered in their wicked designs, or discomfited and put to flight.

Verse 5
Psalms 35:5. Let them be — Or, They shall be; as chaff before the wind — That is, dispersed and chased from place to place, finding rest and safety nowhere. And let the angel of the Lord — Whom God employs to defend his people, and to destroy his enemies; chase them — Drive them forward to their destruction, as chaff is driven by a fierce wind.

Verse 6-7
Psalms 35:6-7. Let their way — By which they flee, being chased, as was now said; be dark and slippery — So as that they can neither discern the right path, nor be able to stand in it, and much less to escape, especially from so swift a pursuer as an angel. For without cause — Out of mere malice, without any injury or provocation on my part; have they hid, &c. — The sundry expressions used in this clause, aggravate their sin, and signify that their persecution of him was not the effect of a sudden passion, but of a deep and habitual hatred and malice, carried on in a constant and continued course, with deliberation, craft, and deceit, and that against David’s soul, or life; for nothing less would satisfy them.

Verses 8-10
Psalms 35:8-10. Let destruction come upon him — Upon each of thine and mine implacable enemies, of whom he had hitherto spoken. Or, rather, by this change of the plural number into the singular, he points at Saul, his chief and most implacable enemy. And my soul shall be joyful in the Lord — In and for his glory and service, which, by these means, will be advanced, and for his favour to me. All my bones shall say — My whole body, with all its members, as well as all the faculties of my soul, shall be affected with a deep sense of thy goodness toward me, and thereby shall set forth thy praise. The expressions are figurative, as where the bones are said to be vexed, and to rejoice, Psalms 6:2; Psalms 51:8, and the loins to bless, Job 31:20.

Verse 11-12
Psalms 35:11-12. They laid to my charge things I knew not — They accused me to Saul of treacherous designs against his crown and life, and of other crimes of which I was wholly innocent and ignorant. They rewarded me evil for good — For the good offices which I performed to divers of them when I had favour and power in Saul’s court and camp. To the spoiling of my soul — That is, to the stripping of my person of all my comforts and hopes, and of my life itself. This interpretation of the passage, the reader will observe, is given according to the present translation. But the Hebrew verbs, יקומו, ישׁאלו, ישׁלמו, jeshallemu, jishalu, jekumu, are all in the future tense, and the clauses are more properly rendered, False witnesses will rise up, &c.; They will lay to my charge, &c.; They will reward me, &c., which seems to intimate that the prophet was speaking of what was then future, and in the person of him against whom false witnesses did arise, to whose charge they laid things he knew not, and whom they rewarded evil for good; “who, because our souls were sick, clothed himself with the sackcloth of our flesh; mourning at the very thought that his prayers, in any measure, should return into his own bosom.” See Fenwick.

Verse 13
Psalms 35:13. When they were sick — Or in any other great misery; my clothing was sackcloth — Which was the habit of mourners. I humbled — Hebrew, I afflicted, my soul with fasting — And with compassion and fervent prayers for them; and, or but, my prayer returned into mine own bosom — My fastings and prayers did them no good, neither abated their malice, nor prevailed with God for them, so far as I desired; but returned to me without success, like a gift sent to an uncivil person, who disdainfully rejects it, and returns it to the giver. But this clause may be rendered, And my prayer in my bosom returned; that is, I daily and frequently repeated my prayers for them, and that not only in public, when I joined with others, but also in secret, between God and my own soul; and that with a sincere and hearty affection. For what is done secretly, and affectionately, is said to be done in the bosom. Others render it, My prayer rested, or, settled in my bosom — That is, “I never was without a prayer for them in my breast.” So Mudge.

Verse 14
Psalms 35:14. I behaved myself — Hebrew, התהלכתי, hithhalacti, I caused myself to walk, namely, to visit and comfort him; or, I conducted myself toward him, as though he had been my friend, &c. — As if I had been in danger of losing a friend or brother. I bowed down heavily — Went hanging down my head as mourners used to do, Isaiah 58:5; as one that mourneth for his mother — I could not have looked more dejected if I had bewailed the death of the dearest mother.

Verse 15-16
Psalms 35:15-16. But in mine adversity — Hebrew, בצלעי, betzalgni, in my halting, that is, when I was in great danger of falling into mischief. When I had any sickness or ill success in my affairs, and was almost lost, for such are often said to halt, in the Scripture; they rejoiced and gathered themselves together — These very men (such was their inhumanity!) could not dissemble the joy they conceived when the news was brought of any evil that befell me, but ran to tell one another, and assembled themselves together that they might publicly testify how glad they were to hear it. Yea, the very abjects — Hebrew, נכים, neechim, loripedes, the bow-legged, or, lame. It means, properly, percussi aut lęsi pedibus, persons wounded or hurt in their feet. The sense is, vile persons, the very scum of the people, persons so mean that I did not so much as know there were such men in the world, met together to revile me; nay, the cripples, who could not walk without trouble and pain, were as forward as any others to go to these meetings on this occasion. They did tear me — That is, my good name, with scoffs, and calumnies, and reproaches, and curses; and ceased not — Hebrew, ולא דמו, velo damu, were not silent, that is, they acted thus unweariedly and continually; with hypocritical, or profane, mockers — Whose common practice it was to scoff at, and deride, others; in feasts — Hebrew, לעגי מעוג, sanniones placentę, vel cibi, buffoons, or jesters, for a cake, or morsel of bread; namely, parasites, qui gulę causa aliis adulantur, says Buxtorf, who flatter others for the sake of their belly. They made themselves buffoons and jesters, and accustomed themselves to mock and deride David, that they might gain admittance to the tables of great men, where they might fill their bellies, which was all that they sought, or got by such conduct. They gnashed upon me with their teeth — They used all expressions of rage and hatred against me, which they did to curry favour with my great and powerful adversaries. The indignities and outrage which the Lord Jesus endured from the Jews seem to be plainly foretold in these two verses. See Mark 14:65.

Verse 17-18
Psalms 35:17-18. Lord, how long wilt thou look on — Like an idle spectator, without affording me any pity or help? Rescue my soul from their destructions — Be pleased, at length, to vindicate my innocence from those who have already despoiled me of my peace and good name; my darling from the lions — Namely, my soul or life, as it is in the former clause. Hebrew, my only one, for I am left alone, and forsaken by my friends, and have none to trust in but thee: (see on Psalms 22:21;) and now they seek, like so many rapacious lions, to devour me. I will give thee thanks in the congregation — When I shall be restored to the liberty of the public assemblies and solemn feasts.

Verses 19-21
Psalms 35:19-21. Neither let them wink with the eye — That is, mock me, or insult over me, as this phrase signifies. For they speak not peace — They are enemies to all peaceable counsels; they breathe out nothing but threatenings and war. They devise deceitful matters — They use, not only open violence, but deceit and subtle artifices; against them that are quiet in the land — Against me and my followers, who desire nothing more than to live quietly and peaceably under Saul’s government. They opened their mouth wide — To pour forth whole floods of scoffs, slanders, and contumelies. Or, to devour me. It is a metaphor taken from wild beasts, when they come within reach of their prey. And said, Aha, Aha! — An expression of joy and triumph. Our eye hath seen it — Namely, what we have long desired and hoped for. Or, as Bishop Patrick paraphrases it, “So, so, we have found him out; his treasonable practices are discovered; we ourselves are eye-witnesses of it.”

Verses 22-24
Psalms 35:22-24. Thou hast seen, O Lord — As they say they have seen, so my comfort is, that thou also hast seen, and dost observe all their plots and threats, and all my distresses and calamities, which I suffer for thy sake. Keep not silence — Or, Be not deaf, namely, to my prayers. Be not far from me — Do not withdraw thy favour and help from me. Awake unto my cause — At last undertake to plead my cause against my adversaries. According to thy righteousness — Whereby thou usest to defend the innocent and punish their oppressors.

Verses 25-27
Psalms 35:25-27. Let them not say, Ah! so would we have it — Hebrew, Aha, our soul; an expression of mirth, as before, Psalms 35:21, or, Aha, we have our wish, or desire. We have swallowed him up — David is now as low as we could wish him. Let them be brought to confusion together — As they gathered themselves together to deride and reproach me, so do thou gather them together to confound them; or, as יחדו, jachdav, may be rendered, in like manner, that is, one as well as another. Let the proud and great ones of them be disappointed and ashamed, as well as the meanest among them. That magnify themselves against me — That extol themselves, and their power, and look upon me with scorn and contempt. Let them be glad that favour my righteous cause — That wish well to it, although they want either strength or courage to plead it. Let them say, Let the Lord be magnified — That is, exalted and praised for his righteousness, truth, and goodness, manifested in my deliverance. The great design of my enemies is to magnify themselves, Psalms 35:26, but my chief desire is that God should be magnified.


Book Navigation Title Page Table of Contents Argument Introduction ► Chapter 1 ► Chapter 2 ► Chapter 3 ► Chapter 4 ► Chapter 5 ► Chapter 6 ► Chapter 7 ► Chapter 8 ► Chapter 9 ► Chapter 10 ► Chapter 11 ► Chapter 12 ► Chapter 13 ► Chapter 14 ► Chapter 15 ► Chapter 16 ► Chapter 17 ► Chapter 18 ► Chapter 19 ► Chapter 20 ► Chapter 21 ► Chapter 22 ► Chapter 23 ► Chapter 24 ► Chapter 25 ► Chapter 26 ► Chapter 27 ► Chapter 28 ► Chapter 29 ► Chapter 30 ► Chapter 31 ► Chapter 32 ► Chapter 33 ► Chapter 34 ► Chapter 35 ► Chapter 36 ► Chapter 37 ► Chapter 38 ► Chapter 39 ► Chapter 40 ► Chapter 41 ► Chapter 42 ► Chapter 43 ► Chapter 44 ► Chapter 45 ► Chapter 46 ► Chapter 47 ► Chapter 48 ► Chapter 49 ► Chapter 50 ► Chapter 51 ► Chapter 52 ► Chapter 53 ► Chapter 54 ► Chapter 55 ► Chapter 56 ► Chapter 57 ► Chapter 58 ► Chapter 59 ► Chapter 60 ► Chapter 61 ► Chapter 62 ► Chapter 63 ► Chapter 64 ► Chapter 65 ► Chapter 66 ► Chapter 67 ► Chapter 68 ► Chapter 69 ► Chapter 70 ► Chapter 71 ► Chapter 72 ► Chapter 73 ► Chapter 74 ► Chapter 75 ► Chapter 76 ► Chapter 77 ► Chapter 78 ► Chapter 79 ► Chapter 80 ► Chapter 81 ► Chapter 82 ► Chapter 83 ► Chapter 84 ► Chapter 85 ► Chapter 86 ► Chapter 87 ► Chapter 88 ► Chapter 89 ► Chapter 90 ► Chapter 91 ► Chapter 92 ► Chapter 93 ► Chapter 94 ► Chapter 95 ► Chapter 96 ► Chapter 97 ► Chapter 98 ► Chapter 99 ► Chapter 100 ► Chapter 101 ► Chapter 102 ► Chapter 103 ► Chapter 104 ► Chapter 105 ► Chapter 106 ► Chapter 107 ► Chapter 108 ► Chapter 109 ► Chapter 110 ► Chapter 111 ► Chapter 112 ► Chapter 113 ► Chapter 114 ► Chapter 115 ► Chapter 116 ► Chapter 117 ► Chapter 118 ► Chapter 119 ► Chapter 120 ► Chapter 121 ► Chapter 122 ► Chapter 123 ► Chapter 124 ► Chapter 125 ► Chapter 126 ► Chapter 127 ► Chapter 128 ► Chapter 129 ► Chapter 130 ► Chapter 131 ► Chapter 132 ► Chapter 133 ► Chapter 134 ► Chapter 135 ► Chapter 136 ► Chapter 137 ► Chapter 138 ► Chapter 139 ► Chapter 140 ► Chapter 141 ► Chapter 142 ► Chapter 143 ► Chapter 144 ► Chapter 145 ► Chapter 146 ► Chapter 147 ► Chapter 148 ► Chapter 149 ► Chapter 150