Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Psalms 24

By Joseph Benson


Verse 1
Psalms 24:1. The earth is the Lord’s — The psalmist begins with a representation of God’s dominion over this world in general, and his providential presence in every part of it. After which follows a declaration of his special presence in his tabernacle. And the fulness thereof — All the creatures are the Lord’s, and especially the inhabitants wherewith the earth is replenished. God’s general dominion over, and interest in, all persons and places, seem to be here premised and asserted, 1st, To show his right to choose any nation that he pleased to be his peculiar people: 2d, To set forth his singular kindness and mercy to Israel, whom he chose out of all the nations of the world to be near to him, and to have a special acquaintance with him, although, otherwise, he had no other relation to them than what he had to all mankind, namely, that of Creator and Governor: and, 3d, To demonstrate the excellence of the Jewish religion above all others, because the God whom they served was the God and Maker of the world, whereas the gods of the Gentiles were but dumb and deaf idols, and esteemed even by themselves to be but local and confined deities.

Verse 2
Psalms 24:2. For he hath founded it — Justly have I said, that the earth is the Lord’s, for he made it, and laid the foundation of it, and that in a wonderful manner; upon the seas — By the seas and floods he means the whole collection of waters, as well the sea and rivers running into it as that great abyss of waters which is contained in the bowels of the earth. This is here mentioned as an evidence of God’s wise and gracious providence, that he hath erected so vast a building upon so weak a foundation as the waters are: for “the waters which, at the creation, and again at the deluge, overspread all things, being, by the power of God, driven down into the great deep, and there confined, the earth was, in a wonderful manner, constructed and established as a kind of circular arch upon, or over them.” — Horne.

Verse 3
Psalms 24:3. Who shall ascend, &c. — Dr. Hammond infers from the composition of this Psalm, that it was intended to be sung by two companies or choirs, the one answering the other. To strengthen his conjecture that it was actually performed so, he observes, that upon very solemn occasions (and such this was) it was usual with the Jews to separate themselves, to divide into two companies, one standing on one side, and the other on the other. Thus, so long ago as Moses’s time, six tribes stood on mount Gerizim, and the other six on the opposite mount, Ebel. And Nehemiah mentions two companies of them that gave thanks, Nehemiah 12:31, whereof one went to the right hand, Nehemiah 12:38, and the other over against them, Nehemiah 12:40. In like manner he thinks, at the solemn placing of the ark in Zion, the two choirs of singers might stand, one on one side of the tabernacle, and the other on the other, and repeat this Psalm. Dr. Delaney, improving on this idea, imagines that the king began the concert “with a solemn and sonorous recitative” of the first verse. The chorus, he thinks, was then divided, and each sung in their turns, both joining in the close, For he hath founded it upon the seas, &c. This part of the music, he supposes, lasted till the procession reached the foot of the hill of Sion, and that then the king stepped forth, and began in a solemn tone, Who shall ascend, &c. Then the first chorus of singers answered, Even he that hath clean hands, &c. The second chorus, That hath not lift up, &c., to the end of the 6th verse. “Let this part of the music,” says he, “be supposed to have lasted till they reached the gates of the city. Then the king began again in that most sublime and heavenly strain, Lift up your heads, O ye gates, &c., which all repeated in chorus. The persons appointed to keep the gates (or, perhaps, the matrons of Jerusalem, meeting David there, as they did Saul, upon his return from the conquest of the Philistines, 1 Samuel 18.) are supposed next to have sung, Who is the king of glory? and the first and second chorus to have answered, It is the Lord, strong and mighty, &c. And now let us suppose the instruments to take up the same airs, (the king, the princes, and the matrons moving to the measure,) and to continue them to the gates of the court of the tabernacle: then let the king again begin: Lift up your heads, O ye gates, &c., and be followed and answered as before: all closing — instruments sounding, chorus singing, people shouting — He is the King of glory. How others may think upon the point,” adds he, “I cannot say, (nor pretend to describe,) but for my own part I have no notion of hearing, or of any man’s having seen or heard, any thing so great, so solemn, so celestial, on this side the gates of heaven.” Leaving the reader to judge of this hypothesis as it shall appear to him, we return to the consideration of some of the expressions occurring in the verses thus referred to. The hill of the Lord, mentioned in this verse, (Psalms 24:3,) was Sion, or Moriah, the place of God’s sanctuary and special presence. The psalmist, having asserted and proved God’s dominion over all mankind, and consequently their obligation to worship and serve him, now proposes a most necessary and important question, especially in those times, when all nations, except Israel, were in a state of deep ignorance and error respecting it, namely, where, and how, and by whom, God would be served, and his favour and blessing might be enjoyed. The place is here mentioned, and the qualification of the persons described in the following verses. Who shall stand — To minister before him. Standing is the posture of ministers or servants. Who shall serve God with acceptance? In his holy place? — The place he hath sanctified for his service.

Verse 4
Psalms 24:4. He that hath clean hands — Whose actions and conversation are holy and unblameable. It is here very observable that the character of a right and acceptable worshipper of God is not taken from his nation and relation to Abraham; nor from any or all of those costly and laborious rites and ceremonies of the law in which the generality of the Israelites placed their confidence, but from moral and spiritual duties, which most of them grossly neglected. And a pure heart — Purged from hypocrisy, and corrupt desires and designs, and careful to approve itself to God, as well as men, ordering a man’s very thoughts, intentions, and affections, according to God’s word. This is fitly added, because a man may keep his hands clean, in a good measure, from mere worldly motives, and without any respect to God, and even with an evil design. Who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity — Who doth not worship idols, often called vanities in Scripture, and who doth not value or desire the vain things of this life, such as honour, riches, pleasures; but who makes God his portion. And this, also, is very fitly mentioned as essential to the character of a truly good man, because, hereby he is distinguished from all carnal and ungodly men whatsoever, whose inseparable property it is, according to both the Old and New Testament, to love vanity, and to set their hearts chiefly upon the things of this world. Whereas good men are everywhere described to be such as seek their happiness in God, and prize and desire his favour and service infinitely more than all the enjoyments or this life; yea, even than life itself. Nor sworn deceitfully — Hebrew, למרמה, lemirmah, unto, or with deceit, that is, falsely, or with a purpose of deceiving others thereby. Under this negative the contrary affirmative is included, namely, that he is one who, when he is called to swear, doth swear in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness, Jeremiah 4:2.

Verse 5
Psalms 24:5. He shall receive the blessing from the Lord — That is, the blessings which God hath promised to his people, namely, grace and glory, and all other good things, Psalms 84:11. He, and only he, shall be truly blessed. And righteousness — The fruit or reward of his righteousness, the work being often put for the reward of it: or kindness, or mercy, and those benefits which flow therefrom.

Verse 6
Psalms 24:6. This is the generation of them that seek him — The true progeny, which God regards, that make it their care and study to know him, and his mind and will, and to please and serve him. Whereby he reflects upon them who boasted of, and trusted in, their carnal descent from Abraham and the other patriarchs. That seek thy face, O Jacob — That is, O God of Jacob, that seek thy grace and favour, often called God’s face. Such ought the people to be who seek the presence of God, and approach to worship him in the sanctuary. And such ought they to be who celebrate the ascension of the Redeemer, and hope, one day, to follow him into those happy mansions which he is gone before to prepare for them.

Verse 7
Psalms 24:7. Lift up your heads, O ye gates — The questions, Who shall ascend God’s hill, namely, to worship? and, Who shall stand in his holy place, to minister before and serve him? being answered, the psalmist proceeds to speak next of the introduction of the presence of him into that place whom they were to worship, namely, the great and glorious Jehovah. For what would it signify that they were prepared to worship, if HE whom they were to worship were not present to accept and bless his worshippers? David speaks here of the gates and doors, either, 1st, Of his royal city Zion, through which the ark was now to pass to the tabernacle which he had built for it. And he calls these doors everlasting, either on account of the durableness of the matter of which they were made; or from his desires and hopes that God would make them everlasting, or of long continuance, because he loved the gates of Zion, Psalms 87:2. Or, he speaks, 2d, Of the gates of the court of the tabernacle, or of the tabernacle itself, into which the ark, the emblem of the divine presence, was now to be brought. Or, 3d, When composing this Psalm, he might look forward in a spirit of prophecy to the temple, beholding it as already built, and accordingly might address his speech to the gates and doors of it, terming them everlasting, not so much because they were made of strong and durable materials, as in opposition to those of the tabernacle, which were removed from place to place; whereas the temple and its doors were constantly fixed in one place; and, if the sins of Israel had not hindered, would have abode there for ever, that is, as long as the Mosaic dispensation lasted, or until the coming of the Messiah, as the phrase, for ever, is very commonly taken in the Old Testament. These gates he bids lift up their heads, or tops, by allusion to those gates which have a portcullis, the head of which, when it is lifted up, rises conspicuous above the gates, and accordingly makes the entrance higher, and more magnificent. But though this be the literal sense of the place, yet it has also a mystical sense, and that too designed by the Holy Ghost. And as the temple was a type of Christ, and of his church, and of heaven itself; so this place may also contain a representation, either of Christ’s entrance into his church, or into the hearts of his faithful people, who are here commanded to set open their hearts and souls for his reception: or, of his ascension into heaven, where the saints, or angels, are poetically introduced as preparing the way, and opening the heavenly gates to receive their Lord and King, returning to his royal habitation with triumph and glory. The King of glory — The glorious King Jehovah, who resided in the Shechinah, or glory, over the ark, the symbol of his presence, and between the cherubim. Or, the Messiah, the King of Israel, and of his church, called the King, or Lord of glory, 1 Corinthians 2:8; James 2:1, both for that glory which is inherent in him, and that which is purchased by him for his members.

Verse 8
Psalms 24:8. Who is the King of glory? — What is the cause of this imperious call? And why? Or, for whom must those gates be opened in so solemn and extraordinary a manner? The answer is, The Lord strong and mighty, &c. — As if he had said, He is no ordinary person, no other than Jehovah, who hath given so many proofs of his almightiness, who hath subdued all his enemies, and is now returned in triumph.

Verse 9-10
Psalms 24:9-10. Lift up your heads, &c. — The same verse is repeated again, to awaken the dulness of mankind, who are so hardly brought to a serious preparation for such solemnities; and to signify the great importance of the matter contained under these expressions. The Lord of hosts — Under whose command are all the hosts of heaven and earth, angels and men, and all other creatures. The reader will be pleased to see Dr. Horne’s application of these verses to the ascension of our Lord. “We must now,” says he, “form to ourselves an idea of the Lord of glory, after his resurrection from the dead, making his entry into the eternal temple in heaven; as of old, by the symbol of his presence, he took possession of that figurative and temporary structure which once stood upon the hill of Sion. We are to conceive him gradually rising from mount Olivet into the air, taking the clouds for his chariot, and ascending up on high; while some of the angels, like the Levites in procession, attendant on the triumphant Messiah, in the day of his power, demand that those everlasting gates and doors, hitherto shut and barred against the race of Adam, should be thrown open, for his admission into the realms of bliss. Lift up your heads, &c. — On hearing this voice of jubilee and exultation from the earth, the abode of misery and sorrow, the rest of the angels, astonished at the thought of a man claiming a right of entrance into their happy regions, ask, from within, like the Levites in the temple, Who is this King of glory? To which question the attendant angels answer, in a strain of joy and triumph — and let the church of the redeemed answer with them — The Lord strong and mighty, &c. — The LORD JESUS, victorious over sin, death, and hell. Therefore we say, and with holy transport we repeat it, Lift up your heads, &c. And if any ask, Who is the King of glory? to heaven and earth we proclaim aloud, THE LORD OF HOSTS, the all-conquering MESSIAH, head over every creature, the leader of the armies of JEHOVAH, he is the King of glory. Even so, glory be to thee, O Lord most high! Amen. Hallelujah.”


Book Navigation Title Page Table of Contents Argument Introduction ► Chapter 1 ► Chapter 2 ► Chapter 3 ► Chapter 4 ► Chapter 5 ► Chapter 6 ► Chapter 7 ► Chapter 8 ► Chapter 9 ► Chapter 10 ► Chapter 11 ► Chapter 12 ► Chapter 13 ► Chapter 14 ► Chapter 15 ► Chapter 16 ► Chapter 17 ► Chapter 18 ► Chapter 19 ► Chapter 20 ► Chapter 21 ► Chapter 22 ► Chapter 23 ► Chapter 24 ► Chapter 25 ► Chapter 26 ► Chapter 27 ► Chapter 28 ► Chapter 29 ► Chapter 30 ► Chapter 31 ► Chapter 32 ► Chapter 33 ► Chapter 34 ► Chapter 35 ► Chapter 36 ► Chapter 37 ► Chapter 38 ► Chapter 39 ► Chapter 40 ► Chapter 41 ► Chapter 42 ► Chapter 43 ► Chapter 44 ► Chapter 45 ► Chapter 46 ► Chapter 47 ► Chapter 48 ► Chapter 49 ► Chapter 50 ► Chapter 51 ► Chapter 52 ► Chapter 53 ► Chapter 54 ► Chapter 55 ► Chapter 56 ► Chapter 57 ► Chapter 58 ► Chapter 59 ► Chapter 60 ► Chapter 61 ► Chapter 62 ► Chapter 63 ► Chapter 64 ► Chapter 65 ► Chapter 66 ► Chapter 67 ► Chapter 68 ► Chapter 69 ► Chapter 70 ► Chapter 71 ► Chapter 72 ► Chapter 73 ► Chapter 74 ► Chapter 75 ► Chapter 76 ► Chapter 77 ► Chapter 78 ► Chapter 79 ► Chapter 80 ► Chapter 81 ► Chapter 82 ► Chapter 83 ► Chapter 84 ► Chapter 85 ► Chapter 86 ► Chapter 87 ► Chapter 88 ► Chapter 89 ► Chapter 90 ► Chapter 91 ► Chapter 92 ► Chapter 93 ► Chapter 94 ► Chapter 95 ► Chapter 96 ► Chapter 97 ► Chapter 98 ► Chapter 99 ► Chapter 100 ► Chapter 101 ► Chapter 102 ► Chapter 103 ► Chapter 104 ► Chapter 105 ► Chapter 106 ► Chapter 107 ► Chapter 108 ► Chapter 109 ► Chapter 110 ► Chapter 111 ► Chapter 112 ► Chapter 113 ► Chapter 114 ► Chapter 115 ► Chapter 116 ► Chapter 117 ► Chapter 118 ► Chapter 119 ► Chapter 120 ► Chapter 121 ► Chapter 122 ► Chapter 123 ► Chapter 124 ► Chapter 125 ► Chapter 126 ► Chapter 127 ► Chapter 128 ► Chapter 129 ► Chapter 130 ► Chapter 131 ► Chapter 132 ► Chapter 133 ► Chapter 134 ► Chapter 135 ► Chapter 136 ► Chapter 137 ► Chapter 138 ► Chapter 139 ► Chapter 140 ► Chapter 141 ► Chapter 142 ► Chapter 143 ► Chapter 144 ► Chapter 145 ► Chapter 146 ► Chapter 147 ► Chapter 148 ► Chapter 149 ► Chapter 150