By Matthew George Easton
Zemaraim - Zuzims
(1.) A town of Benjamin (Josh. 18:22); now the ruin, rather two
ruins, es-Sumrah, 4 miles north of Jericho.
(2.) A mount in the highlands of Ephraim, to the north of Jerusalem (2 Chr. 13:4-20). Here the armies of Abijah and Jeroboam engaged in a bloody battle, which issued in the total defeat of the king of Israel, who never "recovered strength again," and soon after died.
Zemarite - the designation of one of the Phoenician tribes (Gen. 10:18) who inhabited the town of Sumra, at the western base of the Lebanon range. In the Amarna tablets (B.C. 1400) Zemar, or Zumur, was one of the most important of the Phoenician cities, but it afterwards almost disappears from history.
Zemira - vine-dresser, a Benjamite; one of the sons of Becher (1 Chr. 7:8).
Zenas - a disciple called "the lawyer," whom Paul wished Titus to bring with him (Titus 3:13). Nothing more is known of him.
Zephaniah - Jehovah has concealed, or Jehovah of darkness. (1.) The son of Cushi, and great-grandson of Hezekiah, and the ninth in the order of the minor prophets. He prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah (B.C. 641-610), and was contemporary with Jeremiah, with whom he had much in common. The book of his prophecies consists of:
(a) An introduction (1:1-6), announcing the judgment of the world, and the judgment upon Israel, because of their transgressions.
(b) The description of the judgment (1:7-18).
(c) An exhortation to seek God while there is still time (2:1-3).
(d) The announcement of judgment on the heathen (2:4-15).
(e) The hopeless misery of Jerusalem (3:1-7).
(f) The promise of salvation (3:8-20).
(2.) The son of Maaseiah, the "second priest" in the reign of Zedekiah, often mentioned in Jeremiah as having been sent from the king to inquire (Jer. 21:1) regarding the coming woes which he had denounced, and to entreat the prophet's intercession that the judgment threatened might be averted (Jer. 29:25, 26, 29; 37:3; 52:24). He, along with some other captive Jews, was put to death by the king of Babylon "at Riblah in the land of Hamath" (2 Kings 25:21).
(3.) A Kohathite ancestor of the prophet Samuel (1 Chr. 6:36).
(4.) The father of Josiah, the priest who dwelt in Jerusalem when Darius issued the decree that the temple should be rebuilt (Zech. 6:10).
Zephath - beacon; watch-tower, a Canaanite town; called also Hormah (q.v.), Judg. 1:17. It has been identified with the pass of es-Sufah, but with greater probability with S'beita.
Zephathah - a valley in the west of Judah, near Mareshah; the scene of Asa's conflict with Zerah the Ethiopian (2 Chr. 14:9-13). Identified with the Wady Safieh.
Zerah - sunrise. (1.) An "Ethiopian," probably Osorkon II., the successor of Shishak on the throne of Egypt. With an enormous army, the largest we read of in Scripture, he invaded the kingdom of Judah in the days of Asa (2 Chr. 14:9-15). He reached Zephathah, and there encountered the army of Asa. This is the only instance "in all the annals of Judah of a victorious encounter in the field with a first-class heathen power in full force." The Egyptian host was utterly routed, and the Hebrews gathered "exceeding much spoil." Three hundred years elapsed before another Egyptian army, that of Necho (B.C. 609), came up against Jerusalem.
(2.) A son of Tamar (Gen. 38:30); called also Zara (Matt. 1:3).
(3.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:21, 41).
Zered - =Zared, luxuriance; willow bush, a brook or valley communicating with the Dead Sea near its southern extremity (Num. 21:12; Deut. 2:14). It is called the "brook of the willows" (Isa. 15:7) and the "river of the wilderness" (Amos 6:14). It has been identified with the Wady el-Aksy.
Zereda - the fortress, a city on the north of Mount Ephraim; the birthplace of Jeroboam (1 Kings 11:26). It is probably the same as Zaretan (Josh. 3:16), Zererath (Judg. 7:22), Zartanah (1 Kings 4:12), or the following.
Zeredathah - a place in the plain of Jordan; the same as Zarthan (2 Chr. 4:17; 1 Kings 7:46). Here Solomon erected the foundries in which Hiram made the great castings of bronze for the temple.
Zererath - (Judg. 7:22), perhaps identical with Zereda or Zeredathah. Some identify it with Zahrah, a place about 3 miles west of Beth-shean.
Zeresh - star of Venus, the wife of Haman, whom she instigated to prepare a gallows for Mordecai (Esther 5:10).
Zeruah - stricken, mother of Jeroboam, the first king of the ten tribes (1 Kings 11:26).
Zerubbabel - the seed of Babylon, the son of Salathiel or Shealtiel (Hag. 1:1; Zorobabel, Matt. 1:12); called also the son of Pedaiah (1 Chr. 3:17-19), i.e., according to a frequent usage of the word "son;" the grandson or the nephew of Salathiel. He is also known by the Persian name of Sheshbazzar (Ezra 1:8, 11). In the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, he led the first band of Jews, numbering 42,360 (Ezra 2:64), exclusive of a large number of servants, who returned from captivity at the close of the seventy years. In the second year after the Return, he erected an altar and laid the foundation of the temple on the ruins of that which had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (3:8-13; ch. 4-6). All through the work he occupied a prominent place, inasmuch as he was a descendant of the royal line of David.
Zeruiah - stricken of the Lord, David's sister, and the mother of Abishai, Joab, and Asahel (1 Chr. 2:16), who were the three leading heroes of David's army, and being his nephews, they were admitted to the closest companionship with him.
Zetham - olive planter, a Levite (1 Chr. 23:8).
Zethan - a Benjamite (1 Chr. 7:10).
Zia - fear, a Gadite (1 Chr. 5:13).
Ziba - post; statue, "a servant of the house of Saul" (2 Sam. 9:2), who informed David that Mephibosheth, a son of Jonathan, was alive. He afterwards dealt treacherously toward Mephibosheth, whom he slanderously misrepresented to David.
Zibeon - robber; or dyed. (1.) A Hivite (Gen. 36:2).
(2.) A Horite, and son of Seir (Gen. 36:20).
Zibia - gazelle, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:9).
Zibiah - the mother of King Joash (2 Kings 12:1; 2 Chr. 24:1).
Zichri - remembered; illustrious. (1.) A Benjamite chief (1 Chr. 8:19).
(2.) Another of the same tribe (1 Chr. 8:23).
Ziddim - sides, a town of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35), has been identified with Kefr-Hattin, the "village of the Hittites," about 5 miles west of Tiberias.
Zidkijah - the Lord is righteous, one who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh. 10:1).
Zidon - a fishery, a town on the Mediterranean coast, about 25 miles north of Tyre. It received its name from the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Gen. 10:15, 19). It was the first home of the Phoenicians on the coast of Palestine, and from its extensive commercial relations became a "great" city (Josh. 11:8; 19:28). It was the mother city of Tyre. It lay within the lot of the tribe of Asher, but was never subdued (Judg. 1:31). The Zidonians long oppressed Israel (Judg. 10:12). From the time of David its glory began to wane, and Tyre, its "virgin daughter" (Isa. 23:12), rose to its place of pre-eminence. Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with the Zidonians, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). This city was famous for its manufactures and arts, as well as for its commerce (1 Kings 5:6; 1 Chr. 22:4; Ezek. 27:8). It is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isa. 23:2, 4, 12; Jer. 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezek. 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). Our Lord visited the "coasts" of Tyre and Zidon = Sidon (q.v.), Matt. 15:21; Mark 7:24; Luke 4:26; and from this region many came forth to hear him preaching (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). From Sidon, at which the ship put in after leaving Caesarea, Paul finally sailed for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4).
This city is now a town of 10,000 inhabitants, with remains of walls built in the twelfth century A.D. In 1855, the sarcophagus of Eshmanezer was discovered. From a Phoenician inscription on its lid, it appears that he was a "king of the Sidonians," probably in the third century B.C., and that his mother was a priestess of Ashtoreth, "the goddess of the Sidonians." In this inscription Baal is mentioned as the chief god of the Sidonians.
Zif - brightness; splendour; i.e., "the flower month," mentioned only in 1 Kings 6:1, 37, as the "second month." It was called Iyar by the later Jews. (See MONTH.)
Ziha - drought. (1.) The name of a family of Nethinim (Ezra 2:43; Neh. 7:46). (2.) A ruler among the Nethinim (Neh. 11:21).
Ziklag - a town in the Negeb, or south country of Judah (Josh. 15:31), in the possession of the Philistines when David fled to Gath from Ziph with all his followers. Achish, the king, assigned him Ziklag as his place of residence. There he dwelt for over a year and four months. From this time it pertained to the kings of Judah (1 Sam. 27:6). During his absence with his army to join the Philistine expedition against the Israelites (29:11), it was destroyed by the Amalekites (30:1, 2), whom David, however, pursued and utterly routed, returning all the captives (1 Sam. 30:26-31). Two days after his return from this expedition, David received tidings of the disastrous battle of Gilboa and of the death of Saul (2 Sam. 1:1-16). He now left Ziklag and returned to Hebron, along with his two wives, Ahinoam and Abigail, and his band of 600 men. It has been identified with 'Asluj, a heap of ruins south of Beersheba. Conder, however, identifies it with Khirbet Zuheilikah, ruins found on three hills half a mile apart, some seventeen miles north-west of Beersheba, on the confines of Philistia, Judah, and Amalek.
Zillah - shadow, one of the wives of Lamech, of the line of Cain, and mother of Tubal-cain (Gen. 4:19, 22).
Zilpah - drooping, Leah's handmaid, and the mother of Gad and Asher (Gen. 30:9-13).
Zilthai - shadow (i.e., protection) of Jehovah. (1.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:20). (2.) One of the captains of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20).
Zimmah - mischief. (1.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:20).
(2.) Another Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:42).
(3.) The father of Joah (2 Chr. 29:12).
Zimran - vine-dressers; celebrated, one of the sons of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. 25:2).
Zimri - praise-worthy. (1.) A son of Salu, slain by Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, because of his wickedness in bringing a Midianitish woman into his tent (Num. 25:6-15).
(2.) Murdered Elah at Tirzah, and succeeded him on the throne of Israel (1 Kings 16:8-10). He reigned only seven days, for Omri, whom the army elected as king, laid siege to Tirzah, whereupon Zimri set fire to the palace and perished amid its ruins (11-20). Omri succeeded to the throne only after four years of fierce war with Tibni, another claimant to the throne.
Zin - a low palm-tree, the south-eastern corner of the desert et-Tih, the wilderness of Paran, between the Gulf of Akabah and the head of the Wady Guraiyeh (Num. 13:21). To be distinguished from the wilderness of Sin (q.v.).
Zina - ornament, one of the sons of Shimei (1 Chr. 23:10).
Zion - sunny; height, one of the eminences on which Jerusalem was built. It was surrounded on all sides, except the north, by deep valleys, that of the Tyropoeon (q.v.) separating it from Moriah (q.v.), which it surpasses in height by 105 feet. It was the south-eastern hill of Jerusalem.
When David took it from the Jebusites (Josh. 15:63; 2 Sam. 5:7) he built on it a citadel and a palace, and it became "the city of David" (1 Kings 8:1; 2 Kings 19:21, 31; 1 Chr. 11:5). In the later books of the Old Testament this name was sometimes used (Ps. 87:2; 149:2; Isa. 33:14; Joel 2:1) to denote Jerusalem in general, and sometimes God's chosen Israel (Ps. 51:18; 87:5).
In the New Testament (see SION) it is used sometimes to denote the Church of God (Heb. 12:22), and sometimes the heavenly city (Rev. 14:1).
Zior - littleness, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:54); the modern Si'air, 4 1/2 miles north-north-east of Hebron.
Ziph - flowing. (1.) A son of Jehaleleel (1 Chr. 4:16).
(2.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:24), probably at the pass of Sufah.
(3.) A city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:55), identified with the uninhabited ruins of Tell ez-Zif, about 5 miles south-east of Hebron. Here David hid himself during his wanderings (1 Sam. 23:19; Ps. 54, title).
Ziphah - a descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 4:16).
Ziphron - sweet odour, a city on the northern border of Palestine (Num. 34:9), south-east of Hamath.
Zippor - a little bird, the father of Balak, king of Moab (Num. 22:2, 4).
Zipporah - a female bird. Reuel's daughter, who became the wife of Moses (Ex. 2:21). In consequence of the event recorded in Ex. 4:24-26, she and her two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, when so far on the way with Moses toward Egypt, were sent back by him to her own kinsfolk, the Midianites, with whom they sojourned till Moses afterwards joined them (18:2-6).
Zithri - the Lord protects, a Levite, son of Uzziel (Ex. 6:22).
Ziz - projecting; a flower, a cleft or pass, probably that near En-gedi, which leads up from the Dead Sea (2 Chr. 20:16) in the direction of Tekoa; now Tell Hasasah.
Ziza - splendour; abundance. (1.) A Simeonite prince (1 Chr. 4:37-43).
(2.) A son of Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:20).
Zizah - a Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 23:11).
Zoan - (Old Egypt. Sant= "stronghold," the modern San). A city on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, called by the Greeks Tanis. It was built seven years after Hebron in Palestine (Num. 13:22). This great and important city was the capital of the Hyksos, or Shepherd kings, who ruled Egypt for more than 500 years. It was the frontier town of Goshen. Here Pharaoh was holding his court at the time of his various interviews with Moses and Aaron. "No trace of Zoan exists; Tanis was built over it, and city after city has been built over the ruins of that" (Harper, Bible and Modern Discovery). Extensive mounds of ruins, the wreck of the ancient city, now mark its site (Isa. 19:11, 13; 30:4; Ezek. 30:14). "The whole constitutes one of the grandest and oldest ruins in the world."
This city was also called "the Field of Zoan" (Ps. 78:12, 43) and "the Town of Rameses" (q.v.), because the oppressor rebuilt and embellished it, probably by the forced labour of the Hebrews, and made it his northern capital.
Zoar - small, a town on the east or south-east of the Dead Sea, to which Lot and his daughters fled from Sodom (Gen. 19:22, 23). It was originally called Bela (14:2, 8). It is referred to by the prophets Isaiah (15:5) and Jeremiah (48:34). Its ruins are still seen at the opening of the ravine of Kerak, the Kir-Moab referred to in 2 Kings 3, the modern Tell esh-Shaghur.
Zobah - =Aram-Zobah, (Ps. 60, title), a Syrian province or kingdom to the south of Coele-Syria, and extending from the eastern slopes of Lebanon north and east toward the Euphrates. Saul and David had war with the kings of Zobah (1 Sam. 14:47; 2 Sam. 8:3; 10:6).
Zohar - brightness. (1.) The father of Ephron the Hittite (Gen. 23:8).
(2.) One of the sons of Simeon (Gen. 46:10; Ex. 6:15).
Zoheleth - the serpent-stone, a rocky plateau near the centre of the village of Siloam, and near the fountain of En-rogel, to which the women of the village resort for water (1 Kings 1:5-9). Here Adonijah (q.v.) feasted all the royal princess except Solomon and the men who took part with him in his effort to succeed to the throne. While they were assembled here Solomon was proclaimed king, through the intervention of Nathan. On hearing this, adonijah fled and took refuge in the sanctuary (1 Kings 1:49-53). He was afterwards pardoned.
Zoheleth projects into or slightly over-hangs the Kidron valley. It is now called ez-Zehwell or Zahweileh.
Zoheth - snatching (?), one of the sons of Ishi (1 Chr. 4:20).
Zophah - spreading out, a son of Helem (1 Chr. 7:35), a chief of Asher.
Zophar - chirping, one of Job's friends who came to condole with him in his distress (Job 2:11. The LXX. render here "king of the Mineans" = Ma'in, Maonites, Judg. 10:12, in Southern Arabia). He is called a Naamathite, or an inhabitant of some unknown place called Naamah.
Zophim, Field of - field of watchers, a place in Moab on the range of Pisgah (Num. 23:14). To this place Balak brought Balaam, that he might from thence curse the children of Israel. Balaam could only speak the word of the Lord, and that was blessing. It is the modern Tal'at-es-Safa. (See PISGAH.)
Zorah - place of wasps, a town in the low country of Judah, afterwards given to Dan (Josh. 19:41; Judg. 18:2), probably the same as Zoreah (Josh. 15:33). This was Samson's birthplace (Judg. 13:2, 25), and near it he found a grave (16:31). It was situated on the crest of a hill overlooking the valley of Sorek, and was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:10). It has been identified with Sur'ah, in the Wady Surar, 8 miles west of Jerusalem. It is noticed on monuments in the fifteenth century B.C. as attacked by the Abiri or Hebrews.
Zuph - honeycomb, a Kohathite Levite, ancestor of Elkanah and Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1); called also Zophai (1 Chr. 6:26).
Zuph, Land of - (1 Sam. 9:5, 6), a district in which lay Samuel's city, Ramah. It was probably so named after Elkanah's son, Zuph (1 Chr. 6:26, marg.).
Zur - rock. (1.) One of the five Midianite kings whom the Israelites defeated and put to death (Num. 31:8).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:30).
Zuriel - rock of God, chief of the family of the Merarites (Num. 3:35) at the time of the Exodus.
Zurishaddai - rock of the Almighty, the father of Shelumiel, who was chief of the tribe of Simeon when Israel was encamped at Sinai (Num. 1:6; 2:12).
Zuzims - restless; sprouting, were smitten "in Ham" by Chedorlaomer and his allies (Gen. 14:5). Some have identified this tribe with the Zamzummims (q.v.).