By Matthew George Easton
Shadow - Shobach
used in Col. 2:17; Heb. 8:5; 10:1 to denote the typical relation
of the Jewish to the Christian dispensation.
Shadrach - Aku's command, the Chaldean name given to Hananiah, one of the Hebrew youths whom Nebuchadnezzar carried captive to Babylon (Dan. 1:6, 7; 3:12-30). He and his two companions refused to bow down before the image which Nebuchadnezzar had set up on the plains of Dura. Their conduct filled the king with the greatest fury, and he commanded them to be cast into the burning fiery furnace. Here, amid the fiery flames, they were miraculously preserved from harm. Over them the fire had no power, "neither was a hair of their head singed, neither had the smell of fire passed on them." Thus Nebuchadnezzar learned the greatness of the God of Israel. (See ABEDNEGO.)
Shalem - perfect, a place (probably the village of Salim) some 2 miles east of Jacob's well. There is an abundant supply of water, which may have been the reason for Jacob's settling at this place (Gen. 33:18-20). The Revised Version translates this word, and reads, "Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem," thus not regarding it as a proper name at all.
Shalim, Land of - land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem (1 Sam. 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan (Josh. 19:42).
Shalisha, Land of - probably the district of Baal-shalisha (2 Kings 4:42), lying about 12 miles north of Lydda (1 Sam. 9:4).
Shallecheth, The gate of - i.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1 Chr. 26:16).
Shallum - retribution. (1.) The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He "conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead" (2 Kings 15:10). He reigned only "a month of days in Samaria" (15:13, marg.). Menahem rose up against Shallum and put him to death (2 Kings 15:14, 15, 17), and became king in his stead.
(2.) Keeper of the temple vestments in the reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22:14).
(3.) One of the posterity of Judah (1 Chr. 2:40, 41).
(4.) A descendant of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:25).
(5.) One of the line of the high priests (1 Chr. 6:13).
(6.) 1 Chr. 7:13.
(7.) A keeper of the gate in the reign of David (1 Chr. 9:17).
(8.) A Levite porter (1 Chr. 9:19, 31; Jer. 35:4).
(9.) An Ephraimite chief (2 Chr. 28:12).
(10.) The uncle of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 32:7).
(11.) A son of king Josiah (1 Chr. 3:15; Jer. 22:11), who was elected to succeed his father on the throne, although he was two years younger than his brother Eliakim. He assumed the crown under the name of Jehoahaz (q.v.). He did not imitate the example of his father (2 Kings 23:32), but was "a young lion, and it learned to catch the prey; it devoured men" (Ezek. 19:3). His policy was anti-Egyptian therefore. Necho, at that time at Riblah, sent an army against Jerusalem, which at once yielded, and Jehoahaz was carried captive to the Egyptian camp, Eliakim being appointed king in his stead. He remained a captive in Egypt till his death, and was the first king of Judah that died in exile.
Shalman - an Assyrian king (Hos. 10:14), identified with Shalmaneser II. (Sayce) or IV. (Lenormant), the successor of Pul on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 728). He made war against Hoshea, the king of Israel, whom he subdued and compelled to pay an annual tribute. Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against his Assyrian conquerer. Shalmaneser again marched against Samaria, which, after a siege of three years, was taken (2 Kings 17:3-5; 18:9) by Sargon (q.v.). A revolution meantime had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. Sargon usurped the vacant throne. Schrader thinks that this is probably the name of a king of Moab mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-pileser as Salamanu.
Shamgar - The Philistines from the maritime plain had made incursions into the Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder, when one of this name, the son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed a rising for the purpose of freeing the land from this oppression. He repelled the invasion, slaying 600 men with an "ox goad" (q.v.). The goad was a formidable sharpointed instrument, sometimes ten feet long. He was probably contemporary for a time with Deborah and Barak (Judg. 3:31; 5:6).
Shamir - a sharp thorn. (1.) One of the sons of Michah (1 Chr. 24:24).
(2.) A town among the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48); probably Somerah, 2 1/2 miles north-west of Debir.
(3.) The residence of Tola, one of the judges, on Mount Ephraim (Judg. 10:1, 2).
Shammah - desert. (1.) One of the "dukes" of Edom (Gen. 36:13, 17).
(2.) One of the sons of Jesse (1 Sam. 16:9). He is also called Shimeah (2 Sam. 13:3) and Shimma (1 Chr. 2:13).
(3.) One of David's three mighty men (2 Sam. 23:11, 12).
(4.) One of David's mighties (2 Sam. 23:25); called also Shammoth (1 Chr. 11:27) and Shamhuth (27:8).
Shammua - heard. (1.) One of the spies sent out by Moses to search the land (Num. 13:4). He represented the tribe of Reuben.
(2.) One of David's sons (1 Chr. 14:4; 3:5, "Shimea;" 2 Sam. 5:14).
(3.) A Levite under Nehemiah (11:17).
Shaphan - a coney, a scribe or secretary of king Josiah (2 Kings 22:3-7). He consulted Huldah concerning the newly-discovered copy of the law which was delivered to him by Hilkiah the priest (8-14). His grandson Gedaliah was governor of Judea (25:22).
Shaphat - judge. (1.) One of the spies. He represented the tribe of Simeon (Num. 13:5).
(2.) The father of Elisha (1 Kings 19:16-19).
(3.) One of David's chief herdsmen (1 Chr. 27:29).
Shapher - brightness, one of the stations where Israel encamped in the wilderness (Num. 33:23, 24).
Sharaim - two gates (Josh. 15:36), more correctly Shaaraim (1 Sam. 17:52), probably Tell Zakariya and Kefr Zakariya, in the valley of Elah, 3 1/2 miles north-west of Socoh.
Sharezer - (god) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria. He and his brother Adrammelech murdered their father, and then fled into the land of Armenia (2 Kings 19:37).
Sharon, Saron - a plain, a level tract extending from the Mediterranean to the hill country to the west of Jerusalem, about 30 miles long and from 8 to 15 miles broad, celebrated for its beauty and fertility (1 Chr. 27:29; Isa. 33:9; 35:2; 65:10). The "rose of Sharon" is celebrated (Cant. 2:1). It is called Lasharon (the article la being here a part of the word) in Josh. 12:18.
Shaveh-Kiriathaim - plain of Kirja-thaim where Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims, the original inhabitants (Gen. 14:5). Now Kureiyat, north of Dibon, in the land of Moab.
Shaveh, Valley of - valley of the plain the ancient name of the "king's dale" (q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:17).
Shavsha - ("Seraiah," 2 Sam. 8:17; "Shisha," 1 Kings 4:3), one of David's secretaries (1 Chr. 18:16).
Shealtiel - asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, 8; Neh. 12:1).
Shearing-house - (2 Kings 10:12, 14; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep." R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.
Shear-Jashub - a remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son (Isa. 7:3), perhaps his eldest son.
Sheba - an oath, seven. (1.) Heb. shebha, the son of Raamah (Gen. 10:7), whose descendants settled with those of Dedan on the Persian Gulf.
(2.) Heb. id. A son of Joktan (Gen. 10:28), probably the founder of the Sabeans.
(3.) Heb. id. A son of Jokshan, who was a son of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. 25:3).
(4.) Heb. id. A kingdom in Arabia Felix. Sheba, in fact, was Saba in Southern Arabia, the Sabaeans of classical geography, who carried on the trade in spices with the other peoples of the ancient world. They were Semites, speaking one of the two main dialects of Himyaritic or South Arabic. Sheba had become a monarchy before the days of Solomon. Its queen brought him gold, spices, and precious stones (1 Kings 10:1-13). She is called by our Lord the "queen of the south" (Matt. 12:42).
(5.) Heb. shebha', "seven" or "an oak." A town of Simeon (Josh. 19:2).
(6.) Heb. id. A "son of Bichri," of the family of Becher, the son of Benjamin, and thus of the stem from which Saul was descended (2 Sam. 20:1-22). When David was returning to Jerusalem after the defeat of Absalom, a strife arose between the ten tribes and the tribe of Judah, because the latter took the lead in bringing back the king. Sheba took advantage of this state of things, and raised the standard of revolt, proclaiming, "We have no part in David." With his followers he proceeded northward. David seeing it necessary to check this revolt, ordered Abishai to take the gibborim, "mighty men," and the body-guard and such troops as he could gather, and pursue Sheba. Joab joined the expedition, and having treacherously put Amasa to death, assumed the command of the army. Sheba took refuge in Abel-Bethmaachah, a fortified town some miles north of Lake Merom. While Joab was engaged in laying siege to this city, Sheba's head was, at the instigation of a "wise woman" who had held a parley with him from the city walls, thrown over the wall to the besiegers, and thus the revolt came to an end.
Shebaniah - whom Jehovah hides, or has made grow up. (1.) A Levite appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark of God (1 Chr. 15:24).
(2.) Another Levite (Neh. 9:4, 5).
(3.) A priest (Neh. 10:12).
(4.) A Levite (Neh. 10:4).
Shebarim - breaks; ruins, a place near Ai (Josh. 7:5; R.V. marg., "the quarries").
Shebna - tender youth, "treasurer" over the house in the reign of Hezekiah, i.e., comptroller or governor of the palace. On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it (Isa. 22:15-25). He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to confer with the Assyrian ambassador (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37; 19:2; Isa. 36:3, 11, 22; 37:2), was a different person.
Shebuel - captive of God. (1.) One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple treasures in the time of David (1 Chr. 23:16; 26:24).
(2.) One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to "lift up the horn" in the temple service (1 Chr. 25:4, 5); called also Shubael (ver. 20).
Shecaniah - one intimate with Jehovah. (1.) A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the priests (1 Chr. 24:11).
(2.) One of the priests who were set "to give to their brethren by courses" of the daily portion (2 Chr. 31:15).
Shechani'ah, id. (1.) A priest whose sons are mentioned in 1 Chr. 3:21, 22.
(2.) Ezra 8:5.
(3.) Ezra 10:2-4.
(4.) The father of Shemaiah, who repaired the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:29).
(5.) The father-in-law of Tobiah (Neh. 6:18).
(6.) A priest who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:3; marg., or Shebaniah).
Shechem - shoulder. (1.) The son of Hamor the Hivite (Gen. 33:19; 34).
(2.) A descendant of Manasseh (Num. 26:31; Josh. 17:2).
(3.) A city in Samaria (Gen. 33:18), called also Sichem (12:6), Sychem (Acts 7:16). It stood in the narrow sheltered valley between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south, these mountains at their base being only some 500 yards apart. Here Abraham pitched his tent and built his first altar in the Promised Land, and received the first divine promise (Gen. 12:6, 7). Here also Jacob "bought a parcel of a field at the hands of the children of Hamor" after his return from Mesopotamia, and settled with his household, which he purged from idolatry by burying the teraphim of his followers under an oak tree, which was afterwards called "the oak of the sorcerer" (Gen. 33:19; 35:4; Judg. 9:37). (See MEONENIM.) Here too, after a while, he dug a well, which bears his name to this day (John 4:5, 39-42). To Shechem Joshua gathered all Israel "before God," and delivered to them his second parting address (Josh. 24:1-15). He "made a covenant with the people that day" at the very place where, on first entering the land, they had responded to the law from Ebal and Gerizim (Josh. 24:25), the terms of which were recorded "in the book of the law of God", i.e., in the roll of the law of Moses; and in memory of this solemn transaction a great stone was set up "under an oak" (comp. Gen. 28:18; 31:44-48; Ex. 24:4; Josh. 4:3, 8, 9), possibly the old "oak of Moreh," as a silent witness of the transaction to all coming time.
Shechem became one of the cities of refuge, the central city of refuge for Western Palestine (Josh. 20:7), and here the bones of Joseph were buried (24:32). Rehoboam was appointed king in Shechem (1 Kings 12:1, 19), but Jeroboam afterwards took up his residence here. This city is mentioned in connection with our Lord's conversation with the woman of Samaria (John 4:5); and thus, remaining as it does to the present day, it is one of the oldest cities of the world. It is the modern Nablus, a contraction for Neapolis, the name given to it by Vespasian. It lies about a mile and a half up the valley on its southern slope, and on the north of Gerizim, which rises about 1,100 feet above it, and is about 34 miles north of Jerusalem. It contains about 10,000 inhabitants, of whom about 160 are Samaritans and 100 Jews, the rest being Christians and Mohammedans.
The site of Shechem is said to be of unrivalled beauty. Stanley says it is "the most beautiful, perhaps the only very beautiful, spot in Central Palestine."
Gaza, near Shechem, only mentioned 1 Chr. 7:28, has entirely disappeared. It was destroyed at the time of the Conquest, and its place was taken by Shechem. (See SYCHAR.)
Shechinah - a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Ex. 14:20; 40:34-38; Lev. 9:23, 24; Num. 14:10; 16:19, 42.
It is probable that after the entrance into Canaan this glory-cloud settled in the tabernacle upon the ark of the covenant in the most holy place. We have, however, no special reference to it till the consecration of the temple by Solomon, when it filled the whole house with its glory, so that the priests could not stand to minister (1 Kings 8:10-13; 2 Chr. 5:13, 14; 7:1-3). Probably it remained in the first temple in the holy of holies as the symbol of Jehovah's presence so long as that temple stood. It afterwards disappeared. (See CLOUD.)
Sheep - are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people (Ps. 23:1, 2; 74:1; 77:20; Isa. 40:11; 53:6; John 10:1-5, 7-16).
"The sheep of Palestine are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs., but sometimes extending to 30 lbs. The tails are indeed huge masses of fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so frequently referred to in the Levitical sacrifices (Ex. 29:22; Lev. 3:9; 7:3; 9:19). Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great festivity (Gen. 31:19; 38:12, 13; 1 Sam. 25:4-8, 36; 2 Sam. 13:23-28).
Sheep-fold - a strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered within it (Num. 32:24; 1 Chr. 17:7; Ps. 50:9; 78:70). In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by "fold" two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See also Matt. 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1 Cor. 9:7.) (See FOLD.)
Sheep-gate - one of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 32; 12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.
Sheep-market - occurs only in John 5:2 (marg., also R.V., "sheep-gate"). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool."
Shekel - weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary" (Ex. 30:13; Num. 3:47) was equal to twenty gerahs (Ezek. 45:12). There were shekels of gold (1 Chr. 21:25), of silver (1 Sam. 9:8), of brass (17:5), and of iron (7). When it became a coined piece of money, the shekel of gold was equivalent to about 2 pound of our money. Six gold shekels, according to the later Jewish system, were equal in value to fifty silver ones.
The temple contribution, with which the public sacrifices were bought (Ex. 30:13; 2 Chr. 24:6), consisted of one common shekel, or a sanctuary half-shekel, equal to two Attic drachmas. The coin, a stater (q.v.), which Peter found in the fish's mouth paid this contribution for both him and Christ (Matt. 17:24, 27). A zuza, or quarter of a shekel, was given by Saul to Samuel (1 Sam. 9:8).
Shelah - petition. (1.) Judah's third son (Gen. 38:2, 5, 11, 14).
(2.) A son of Arphaxad (1 Chr. 1:18).
Shelemiah - whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra 10:39.
(2.) The father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30).
(3.) A priest in the time of Nehemiah (13:13).
(4.) Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah (Jer. 37:3; 38:1).
(5.) Father of a captain of the ward (Jer. 37:13).
(6.) Jer. 36:14.
Shem - a name; renown, the first mentioned of the sons of Noah (Gen. 5:32; 6:10). He was probably the eldest of Noah's sons. The words "brother of Japheth the elder" in Gen. 10:21 are more correctly rendered "the elder brother of Japheth," as in the Revised Version. Shem's name is generally mentioned first in the list of Noah's sons. He and his wife were saved in the ark (7:13). Noah foretold his preeminence over Canaan (9:23-27). He died at the age of six hundred years, having been for many years contemporary with Abraham, according to the usual chronology. The Israelitish nation sprang from him (Gen. 11:10-26; 1 Chr. 1:24-27).
Shema - rumour. (1.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:8).
(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:13).
(3.) One who stood by Ezra when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).
(4.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:26); the same as Sheba (ver. 5).
Shemaah - rumour, a Benjamite whose sons "came to David to Ziklag" (1 Chr. 12:3).
Shemaiah - whom Jehovah heard. (1.) A prophet in the reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 12:22-24).
(2.) Neh. 3:29.
(3.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).
(4.) A priest (Neh. 12:42).
(5.) A Levite (1 Chr. 9:16).
(6.) 1 Chr. 9:14; Neh. 11:15.
(7.) A Levite in the time of David, who with 200 of his brethren took part in the bringing up of the ark from Obed-edom to Hebron (1 Chr. 15:8).
(8.) A Levite (1 Chr. 24:6).
(9.) The eldest son of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4-8).
(10.) A Levite (2 Chr. 29:14).
(11.) A false prophet who hindered the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Neh. 6:10).
(12.) A prince of Judah who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:34-36).
(13.) A false prophet who opposed Jeremiah (Jer. 29:24-32).
(14.) One of the Levites whom Jehoshaphat appointed to teach the law (2 Chr. 17:8).
(15.) A Levite appointed to "distribute the oblations of the Lord" (2 Chr. 31:15).
(16.) A Levite (2 Chr. 35:9).
(17.) The father of Urijah the prophet (Jer. 26:20).
(18.) The father of a prince in the reign of Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:12).
Shemariah - whom Jehovah guards. (1.) One who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
(2.) Ezra 10:32, 41.
Shemeber - soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14:2).
Sheminith - eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1 Chr. 15:21; Ps. 6; 12, title).
Shemiramoth - most high name. (1.) A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:8).
(2.) A Levite in David's time (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
Shemuel - heard of God. (1.) The son of Ammihud. He represented Simeon in the division of the land (Num. 34:20).
(2.) Used for "Samuel" (1 Chr. 6:33, R.V.).
(3.) A prince of the tribe of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:2).
Shen - a tooth, probably some conspicuous tooth-shaped rock or crag (1 Sam. 7:12), a place between which and Mizpeh Samuel set up his "Ebenezer." In the Hebrew the word has the article prefixed, "the Shen." The site is unknown.
Shenir - =Senir, (Deut. 3:9; Cant. 4:8), the name given to Mount Hermon (q.v.) by the Sidonians.
Sheol - (Heb., "the all-demanding world" = Gr. Hades, "the unknown region"), the invisible world of departed souls. (See HELL.)
Shepham - a treeless place, Num. 34:10, 11: "The coast shall go down from Shepham to Riblah."
Shephatiah - judged of the Lord. (1.) A son of David by Abital (2 Sam. 3:4).
(2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).
(3.) A Simeonite prince in David's time (1 Chr. 27:16).
(4.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2 Chr. 21:2).
(5.) Ezra 2:4.
(6.) Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59.
(7.) One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to death (Jer. 38:1-4).
Shepherd - a word naturally of frequent occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the word "pastor" is used instead (Jer. 2:8; 3:15; 10:21; 12:10; 17:16). This word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people (Ps. 23:1; 80:1; Isa. 40:11; 44:28; Jer. 25:34, 35; Nahum 3:18; John 10:11, 14; Heb. 13:20; 1 Pet. 2:25; 5:4).
The duties of a shepherd in an unenclosed country like Palestine were very onerous. "In early morning he led forth the flock from the fold, marching at its head to the spot where they were to be pastured. Here he watched them all day, taking care that none of the sheep strayed, and if any for a time eluded his watch and wandered away from the rest, seeking diligently till he found and brought it back. In those lands sheep require to be supplied regularly with water, and the shepherd for this purpose has to guide them either to some running stream or to wells dug in the wilderness and furnished with troughs. At night he brought the flock home to the fold, counting them as they passed under the rod at the door to assure himself that none were missing. Nor did his labours always end with sunset. Often he had to guard the fold through the dark hours from the attack of wild beasts, or the wily attempts of the prowling thief (see 1 Sam. 17:34).", Deane's David.
Sherebiah - flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in connection with the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at Jerusalem (Ezra 8:17, 18, 24-30; Neh. 8:7; 9:4, 5; 10:12).
Sheresh - root, a descendant of Manasseh (1 Chr. 7:16).
Sherezer - one of the messengers whom the children of the Captivity sent to Jerusalem "to pray for them before the Lord" (Zech. 7:2).
Sheriffs - (Dan. 3:2), Babylonian officers.
Sheshach - (Jer. 25:26), supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on. Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i.e., Babel. This is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jer. 51:41, where Sheshach and Babylon are in parallel clauses. There seems to be no reason to doubt that Babylon is here intended by this name. (See Streane's Jeremiah, l.c.)
Sheshai - whitish, one of the sons of Anak (Num. 13:22). When the Israelites obtained possession of the country the sons of Anak were expelled and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).
Sheshbazzar - O sun-god, defend the lord! (Ezra 1:8, 11), probably another name for Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezra 2:2; Hag. 1:12, 14; Zech. 4:6, 10.
Sheth - tumult. (1.) "The children of Sheth" (Num. 24:17); R.V., "the sons of tumult," which is probably the correct rendering, as there is no evidence that this is a proper name here.
(2.) The antediluvian patriarch (1 Chr. 1:1).
Shethar - a star, a prince at the court of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:14).
Shethar-boznai - star of splendour, a Persian officer who vainly attempted to hinder the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:3, 6; 6:6, 13).
Sheva - Heb. Shebher. (1.) The son of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:49).
(2.) Heb. Sheva', one of David's scribes (2 Sam. 20:25).
Shewbread - Ex. 25:30 (R.V. marg., "presence bread"); 1 Chr. 9:32 (marg., "bread of ordering"); Num. 4:7: called "hallowed bread" (R.V., "holy bread") in 1 Sam. 21:1-6.
This bread consisted of twelve loaves made of the finest flour. They were flat and thin, and were placed in two rows of six each on a table in the holy place before the Lord. They were renewed every Sabbath (Lev. 24:5-9), and those that were removed to give place to the new ones were to be eaten by the priests only in the holy place (see 1 Sam. 21:3-6; comp. Matt. 12:3, 4).
The number of the loaves represented the twelve tribes of Israel, and also the entire spiritual Israel, "the true Israel;" and the placing of them on the table symbolized the entire consecration of Israel to the Lord, and their acceptance of God as their God. The table for the bread was made of acacia wood, 3 feet long, 18 inches broad, and 2 feet 3 inches high. It was plated with pure gold. Two staves, plated with gold, passed through golden rings, were used for carrying it.
Shibboleth - river, or an ear of corn. The tribes living on the east of Jordan, separated from their brethren on the west by the deep ravines and the rapid river, gradually came to adopt peculiar customs, and from mixing largely with the Moabites, Ishmaelites, and Ammonites to pronounce certain letters in such a manner as to distinguish them from the other tribes. Thus when the Ephraimites from the west invaded Gilead, and were defeated by the Gileadites under the leadership of Jephthah, and tried to escape by the "passages of the Jordan," the Gileadites seized the fords and would allow none to pass who could not pronounce "shibboleth" with a strong aspirate. This the fugitives were unable to do. They said "sibboleth," as the word was pronounced by the tribes on the west, and thus they were detected (Judg. 12:1-6). Forty-two thousand were thus detected, and
"Without reprieve, adjudged to death, For want of well-pronouncing shibboleth."
Shibmah - fragrance, a town of Reuben, east of Jordan (Num. 32:38).
Shield - used in defensive warfare, varying at different times and under different circumstances in size, form, and material (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 1:21; 1 Kings 10:17; 1 Chr. 12:8, 24, 34; Isa. 22:6; Ezek. 39:9; Nahum 2:3).
Used figuratively of God and of earthly princes as the defenders of their people (Gen. 15:1; Deut. 33:29; Ps. 33:20; 84:11). Faith is compared to a shield (Eph. 6:16).
Shields were usually "anointed" (Isa. 21:5), in order to preserve them, and at the same time make the missiles of the enemy glide off them more easily.
Shiggaion - from the verb shagah, "to reel about through drink," occurs in the title of Ps. 7. The plural form, shigionoth, is found in Hab. 3:1. The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong mental emotion; a song of impassioned imagination accompanied with suitable music; a dithyrambic ode.
Shihon - overturning, a town of Issachar (Josh. 19:19).
Shihor - dark, (1 Chr. 13:5), the southwestern boundary of Canaan, the Wady el-'Arish. (See SIHOR; NILE.)
Shihor-Libnath - black-white, a stream on the borders of Asher, probably the modern Nahr Zerka, i.e., the "crocodile brook," or "blue river", which rises in the Carmel range and enters the Mediterranean a little to the north of Caesarea (Josh. 19:26). Crocodiles are still found in the Zerka. Thomson suspects "that long ages ago some Egyptians, accustomed to worship this ugly creature, settled here (viz., at Caesarea), and brought their gods with them. Once here they would not easily be exterminated" (The Land and the Book).
Shilhim - aqueducts, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:32); called also Sharuhen and Shaaraim (19:6).
Shiloah, The waters of - =Siloah, (Neh. 3:15) and Siloam (q.v.)
Shiloh - generally understood as denoting the Messiah, "the peaceful one," as the word signifies (Gen. 49:10). The Vulgate Version translates the word, "he who is to be sent," in allusion to the Messiah; the Revised Version, margin, "till he come to Shiloh;" and the LXX., "until that which is his shall come to Shiloh." It is most simple and natural to render the expression, as in the Authorized Version, "till Shiloh come," interpreting it as a proper name (comp. Isa. 9:6).
Shiloh, a place of rest, a city of Ephraim, "on the north side of Bethel," from which it is distant 10 miles (Judg. 21:19); the modern Seilun (the Arabic for Shiloh), a "mass of shapeless ruins." Here the tabernacle was set up after the Conquest (Josh. 18:1-10), where it remained during all the period of the judges till the ark fell into the hands of the Philistines. "No spot in Central Palestine could be more secluded than this early sanctuary, nothing more featureless than the landscape around; so featureless, indeed, the landscape and so secluded the spot that from the time of St. Jerome till its re-discovery by Dr. Robinson in 1838 the very site was forgotten and unknown." It is referred to by Jeremiah (7:12, 14; 26:4-9) five hundred years after its destruction.
Shilonite - Ahijah the prophet, whose home was in Shiloh, is so designated (1 Kings 11:29; 15:29). The plural form occurs (1 Chr. 9:5), denoting the descendants of Shelah, Judah's youngest son.
Shimea - the hearing prayer. (1.) One of David's sons by Bathsheba (1 Chr. 3:5); called also Shammua (14:4).
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 6:30).
(3.) Another Levite of the family of Gershon (1 Chr. 6:39).
(4.) One of David's brothers (1 Sam. 16:9, marg.).
Shimeah - (1.) One of David's brothers (2 Sam. 13:3); same as Shimea (4).
(2.) A Benjamite, a descendant of Gibeon (1 Chr. 8:32); called also Shimeam (9:38).
Shimei - famous. (1.) A son of Gershon, and grandson of Levi (Num. 3:18; 1 Chr. 6:17, 29); called Shimi in Ex. 6:17.
(2.) A Benjamite of the house of Saul, who stoned and cursed David when he reached Bahurim in his flight from Jerusalem on the occasion of the rebellion of Absalom (2 Sam. 16:5-13). After the defeat of Absalom he "came cringing to the king, humbly suing for pardon, bringing with him a thousand of his Benjamite tribesmen, and representing that he was heartily sorry for his crime, and had hurried the first of all the house of Israel to offer homage to the king" (19:16-23). David forgave him; but on his death-bed he gave Solomon special instructions regarding Shimei, of whose fidelity he seems to have been in doubt (1 Kings 2:8,9). He was put to death at the command of Solomon, because he had violated his word by leaving Jerusalem and going to Gath to recover two of his servants who had escaped (36-46).
(3.) One of David's mighty men who refused to acknowledge Adonijah as David's successor (1 Kings 1:8). He is probably the same person who is called elsewhere (4:18) "the son of Elah."
(4.) A son of Pedaiah, the brother of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:19).
(5.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:26, 27).
(6.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:4).
(7.) A Levite of the family of Gershon (1 Chr. 6:42).
(8.) A Ramathite who was "over the vineyards" of David (1 Chr. 27:27).
(9.) One of the sons of Heman, who assisted in the purification of the temple (2 Chr. 29:14).
(10.) A Levite (2 Chr. 31:12, 13).
(11.) Another Levite (Ezra 10:23). "The family of Shimei" (Zech. 12:13; R.V., "the family of the Shimeites") were the descendants of Shimei (1).
Shimeon - hearkening. Ezra 10:31.
Shimhi - famous, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:21).
Shimrath - guardian, a Benjamite, one of Shimhi's sons (id.).
Shimri - watchman. (1.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).
(2.) The father of one of the "valiant men" of David's armies (1 Chr. 11:45).
(3.) Assisted at the purification of the temple in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:13).
Shimrom - watchman, the fourth son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13; 1 Chr. 7:1; R.V., correctly, "Shimron").
Shimron - watch-post, an ancient city of the Canaanites; with its villages, allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 19:15); now probably Semunieh, on the northern edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles west of Nazareth.
Shimron-meron - the same, probably, as Shimron (Josh. 12:20).
Shimshai - the shining one, or sunny, the secretary of Rehum the chancellor, who took part in opposing the rebuilding of the temple after the Captivity (Ezra 4:8, 9, 17-23).
Shinab - cooling, the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, who with his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2).
Shinar, The Land of - LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1-6), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built cities. Then tribes of Semites invaded the land and settled in it, and became its rulers. This was followed in course of time by an Elamite invasion; from which the land was finally delivered by Khammurabi, the son of Amarpel ("Amraphel, king of Shinar," Gen. 14:1), who became the founder of the new empire of Chaldea. (See AMRAPHEL.)
Shiphmite - probably the designation of Zabdi, who has charge of David's vineyards (1 Chr. 27:27).
Shiphrah - beauty, one of the Egyptian midwives (Ex. 1:15).
Shiphtan - judicial, an Ephraimite prince at the time of the division of Canaan (Num. 34:24).
Ships - early used in foreign commerce by the Phoenicians (Gen. 49:13). Moses (Deut. 28:68) and Job (9:26) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" (Num. 24:24). Solomon constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors (1 Kings 9:26-28; 2 Chr. 8:18). Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide himself with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have been wrecked before they set sail (1 Kings 22:48, 49; 2 Chr. 20:35-37).
In our Lord's time fishermen's boats on the Sea of Galilee were called "ships." Much may be learned regarding the construction of ancient merchant ships and navigation from the record in Acts 27, 28.
Shishak I - =Sheshonk I., king of Egypt. His reign was one of great national success, and a record of his wars and conquests adorns the portico of what are called the "Bubastite kings" at Karnak, the ancient Thebes. Among these conquests is a record of that of Judea. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign Shishak came up against the kingdom of Judah with a powerful army. He took the fenced cities and came to Jerusalem. He pillaged the treasures of the temple and of the royal palace, and carried away the shields of gold which Solomon had made (1 Kings 11:40; 14:25; 2 Chr. 12:2). (See REHOBOAM.) This expedition of the Egyptian king was undertaken at the instigation of Jeroboam for the purpose of humbling Judah. Hostilities between the two kingdoms still continued; but during Rehoboam's reign there was not again the intervention of a third party.
Shittah-tree - (Isa. 41:19; R.V., "acacia tree"). Shittah wood was employed in making the various parts of the tabernacle in the wilderness, and must therefore have been indigenous in the desert in which the Israelites wandered. It was the acacia or mimosa (Acacia Nilotica and A. seyal). "The wild acacia (Mimosa Nilotica), under the name of sunt, everywhere represents the seneh, or senna, of the burning bush. A slightly different form of the tree, equally common under the name of seyal, is the ancient 'shittah,' or, as more usually expressed in the plural form, the 'shittim,' of which the tabernacle was made." Stanley's Sinai, etc. (Ex. 25:10, 13, 23, 28).
Shittim - acacias, also called "Abel-shittim" (Num. 33:49), a plain or valley in the land of Moab where the Israelites were encamped after their two victories over Sihon and Og, at the close of their desert wanderings, and from which Joshua sent forth two spies (q.v.) "secretly" to "view" the land and Jericho (Josh. 2:1).
Shoa - opulent, the mountain district lying to the north-east of Babylonia, anciently the land of the Guti, or Kuti, the modern Kurdistan. The plain lying between these mountains and the Tigris was called su-Edina, i.e., "the border of the plain." This name was sometimes shortened into Suti and Su, and has been regarded as = Shoa (Ezek. 23:23). Some think it denotes a place in Babylon. (See PEKOD.)
Shobab - apostate. (1.) One of David's sons by Bathseheba (2 Sam. 5:14).
(2.) One of the sons of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18), the son of Hezron.
Shobach - poured out, the "captain of the host of Hadarezer" when he mustered his vassals and tributaries from beyond "the river Euphrates" (2 Sam. 10:15-18); called also Shophach (1 Chr. 19:16).