Early Israel and Surrounding Nations

By Sayce, A. H. (Archibald Henry)

Appendix 2

 

BABYLONIAN CHRONOLOGY

 

En-sag-saganna, king of Kengi.

Lugal-zaggisi, king of Erech, founds an empire in western Asia cir. B.C. 5000 (?).

KINGS OF LAGAS,cir. B.C. 4000.

Ur-duggina.

Lugal-suggur, vassal of Me-sa, king of Kis.

Gursar.

Nini-khaldu, his son.

Ur-Nina, his son.

Akur-gal, his son.

E-annatum, his son.

En-annadu I., his brother, high-priest.

Entemena, his nephew, high-priest.

En-annadu II., high-priest.

Lugal-usum-gal, vassal of Sargon of Akkad.

KINGS OF KIS.

Me-sa.

Enne-Ugun.

Alusarsid.

Lugal-khassi.

DYNASTY OF AGADE (AKKAD).

Sargon or Sargani-sar-ali, B.C. 3800.

Naram-Sin, his son, B.C. 3750.

Bingani-sar-ali, his son.

Queen Ellat-Gula (?).

FIRST DYNASTY OF UR.

Lugal-kigub-nidudu.

Lugal-kisal-si, his son.

SECOND DYNASTY OF UR.

Ur-Bau, cir. B.C. 2700; his step-son, Nammakhani, high-priest of Lagas.

Dungi I., his son; Gudea and his son, Ur-Nin-girsu, vassal high-priests of Lagas.

DYNASTY OF ERECH.

Sin-gamil.

Sin-gasid.

DYNASTY OF ISIN.

Isbi-girra.

Libit-Istar.

Pur-Sin I.

Ur-Ninip.

Isme-Dagan.

En-annatum, his son, vassal of Gungunum of Ur.

THIRD DYNASTY OF UR.

Gungunum. Dungi II. (reigns at least 41 years).

Pur-Sin II. (reigns at least 12 years).

Gimil-Sin (reigns at least 9 years).

InÍ-Sin (probably followed by Sumu-abi).

FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON, B.C. 2478.

Sumu-abi or Samu-abi, 14 (or 15) years.12

Sumu-la-ilu, his son, 36 (or 35) years.

Zabium or Zabu, his son, 14 years.

Abil-Sin, his son, 18 years.

Sin-muballidh, his son, 20 (or 30) years.

Babylonia conquered by the Elamites; Kudur-Laghghamar (Chedor-laomer) king of Elam is suzerain, while Eri-Aku (Arioch) governs southern Babylonia and makes Larsa his capital.

Khammurabi or Ammurapi, the Amraphel of Genesis, 43 (or 55) years (B.C. 2376-2333).

He defeats the Elamites, restores Sin-idinnam to Larsa, and reunites Babylonia.

Samsu-iluna, his son, 38 (or 35) years.

Abesukh (Abishua) or Ebisum, 25 years.

Ammi-ditana, his son, 25 years.

Ammi-zadok, his son, 21 years.

Samsu-ditana, his son, 31 years.

DYNASTY OF SISKU, B.C. 2174.

Anman, 60 years.

Ki-annibi, 56 years.

Damki-ilisu, 26 years.

Iskipal, 15 years.

Sussi, 24 years.

Gulkisar, 55 years.

Kirgal-daramas, 50 years.

¬-dara-kalamma, 28 years.

E-kur-ul-anna, 26 years.

Melamma-kurkurra, 8 years.

Ea-ga ... 20 years.

THE DYNASTY OF THE KASSITES, B.C. 1806.13

Gandis, 16 years.

Agum-si, 22 years.

Agu-yasi, 22 years.

Ussi, his son, 9 years.

Adumetas.

Tazzigurumas.

Agum-kak-rime, his son.

Eight unknown kings.

Kara-indas.

Kadasman-Bel (corresponded with the Egyptian king Amenophis III.)

Kuri-galzu I.

Burna-huryas, his son.

Kuri-galzu II., his son.14

Kara-khardas.

Kadasman-kharbe I., his son.

The throne usurped by Nazi-bugas.

Kuri-galzu III., son of Kadas-man-kharbe, 35 (?) years.

Nazi-Maruttas, his son, 26 years, B.C. 1378.

Kadasman-Turgu, his son, 17 years.

Kadasman-buryas, 14 years.

Kudur-Bel, 6 years.

Sagarkti-buryas, his son, 13 years (800 years before Nabonidos).

Bibeyasu, 8 years.

Bel-sum-iddin, 1-1/2 year.

Kadasman-kharbe II., 1-1/2 year.

Rimmon-sum-uzur, 30 years (including the 7 years during

which the Assyrian king Tig-lath-Bir held Babylon).

Meli-sipak, 15 years.

Merodach-baladan I., his son, 13 years.

Zamama-sum-iddin, 1 year.

Bel-sum-iddin, 3 years.

THE DYNASTY OF ISIN, B.C. 1229.

Merodach- ... 18 years.

Four unknown kings.

Nebuchadrezzar I.

Bel-nadin-pal.

Merodach-nadin-akhi, 22 years.15

Merodach- ... 1-1/2 year.

The throne usurped by Rimmon-baladan.

Merodach-sapik-zer-mati, 12 years.

Nabu-nadin, 8 years.

THE DYNASTY OF THE SEA-COAST, B.C. 1096.

Simbar-sipak, 18 years.

Ea-mukin-zeri, 5 months.

Kassu-nadin-akhi, 3 years.

THE DYNASTY OF BIT-BAZI, B.C. 1075.

 -Ulmas-sakin-sumi, 17 years.

Bir-kudur-uzur I., 3 years.

Silanim-Sukamuna, 3 months.

THE DYNASTY OF ELAM, B.C. 1055.

An ..., an Elamite, 6 years.

THE SECOND DYNASTY OF BABYLON, B.C. 1049.

Nebo-kin abli, 36 years.

Bir-kudur-uzur II. (?), 8 months, 12 days.

Probably four names missing.

Samas-mudammik

Nebo-sum-iskun cir. 920 B.C.

Nebo-baladan cir. 900 B.C.

Merodach-nadin-sumi. cir. 880 B.C.

Merodach-baladhsu-ikbi cir. 860 B.C.

Bau-akhi-iddin cir. 830 B.C.

Probably two names missing. cir. 810 B.C.

Nebo-sum-iskun, son of Dakuri cir. 760 B.C.

Nabonassar, 14 years 747 B.C.

Nebo-nadin-sumi, his son, 2 years 733 B.C.

Nebo-sum-yukin, his son, 1 month, 12 days 731 B.C.

THE DYNASTY OF SAP .

Yukin-zera or Khinziros, 3 years 730 B.C.

Pulu (Pul or Poros), called Tiglath-pileser III. in Assyria, 2 years 727 B.C.

Ulul‚, called Shalmaneser IV. in Assyria 725 B.C.

Merodach-baladan II the Chaldśan from the Sea-coast 721 B.C.

Sargon of Assyria 709 B.C.

Sennacherib, his son 705 B.C.

Merodach-zakir-sumi, 1 month 702 B.C.

Merodach-baladan III., 6 months 702 B.C.

Bel-ebus of Babylon 702 B.C.

Assur-nadin-sumi, son of Sennacherib 700 B.C.

Nergal-yusezib 694 B.C.

Musezib-Merodach 693 B.C.

Sennacherib a second time 689 B.C.

Esar-haddon, his son 681 B.C.

Samas-sum-yukin (Saos-du-khinos), his son 668 B.C.

Kandalanu (Kineladanos) 648 B.C.

Nabopolassar 626 B.C.

Nabu-kudurri-uzur (Nebuchadrezzar II.), his son 605 B.C.

Amil-Marduk (Evil-Merodach), his son 662 B.C.

Nergal-sarra-uzur (Nergal-sharezer) 560 B.C.

Labasi-Marduk (Laborosoar-chod), his son, 3 months. 556 B.C.

Nabu-nahid (Nabonidos) 556 B.C.

Cyrus conquers Babylon 538 B.C.

Cambyses, his son 529 B.C.

Gomates (Gaumata) the Magian usurps the throne, 7 months 521 B.C.

Nebuchadrezzar III., native king 521 B.C.

Darius (D‚rayavaush), son of Hystaspes 520 B.C.

Nebuchadrezzar IV., rebel king 514 B.C.

Darius restored 513 B.C.

Xerxes I. (Khshay‚rsh‚), his son 485 B.C.

Samas-erba, rebel king 480 B.C.

Xerxes restored 479 B.C.

Artaxerxes I. (Artakhshatra) Longimanus, his son 465 B.C.

Xerxes II., his son, 2 months 425 B.C.

Sogdianos, his half-brother, 7 months 425 B.C.

Darius II. Nothos, his brother 424 B.C.

Artaxerxes II. MnÍmon, his son 405 B.C.

Okhos (Uvasu), son of Artaxerxes 362 B.C.

Arses, his son 339 B.C.

Darius III. Kodomannos 336 B.C.

Conquered by Alexander the Great 330 B.C.

 

12) The first date is that of a chronological tablet compiled in the reign of Ammi-zadok; the second that of the Dynastic Tablet compiled probably in the reign of Nabonidos. In the latter the reigns of illegitimate kings, Pungun-ilu, Immerum, and Eri-Aku, seem to be included in those of the legitimate rulers of the dynasty. Immerum, the son of Lilium, was a contemporary of Sumu-la-ilu, and perhaps, like Nur-Rimmon and Sin-idinnam in the time of Sin-muballidh and Khammurabi, was vassal king of Larsa in southern Babylonia.

13) The date is probably from 15 to 20 years too high.

14) The position of this Kuri-galzu is not certain. One of the Kuri-galzus calls himself "son of Burna-buryas," but since Nabonidos states that a Burna-buryas reigned 700 years after Khammurabi, it is possible that among the eight (or in this ease nine) unknown Kassite kings there was a Burna-buryas I., B.C. 1640, whose son was Kuri-galzu I.

15) As Sennacherib makes Merodach-nadin-akhi defeat the Assyrians in B.C. 1107, while the Dynastic Tablet places the death of the Babylonian king in B.C. 1118, there must be a chronological error in the latter.