Early Israel and Surrounding Nations

By Sayce, A. H. (Archibald Henry)

Appendix 1

 

EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY

 

Egypt was originally divided into several independent principalities. Eventually these became the kingdoms of Northern (or Lower), and Southern (or Upper) Egypt. Among the kings of Northern Egypt were (1) Pu, (2) Ska, (3) Katfu (?), (4) Tau, (5) Thesh, (6) Nenau (?), and (7) Mekh; among the kings of Southern Egypt was Besh.

The two kingdoms were united by Men or Meni (Menes), king of This, who builds Memphis and founds the First dynasty of the united monarchy.

DYNASTY I. (THINITE).

1. Meni.

2. Teta I.

3. Atotha.

4. Ata.

5. Husapti.

6. Mer-ba-pa, 73 years.

7. Samsu, 72 years.

8. Qabhu, 83 years.

DYNASTY II. (THINITE).

1. Buzau or Bai-neter, 95 years.

2. Kakau.

3. Ba-neter-en, 95 years.

4. Uznas, 70 years.

5. Send, 74 years.

6. Per-ab-sen or Ka-Ra (?).

7. Nefer-ka-Ra, 70 years.

DYNASTY III. (MEMPHITE).

1. Nefer-ka-Sokar (2) 8 years, 4 months, 2 days.

2. Hu-zefa, 25 (?) years, 8 months, 4 days.

3. Babai.

4. Zazai, 37 years, 2 months, 1 day.

5. Neb-ka-Ra, 19 years.

6. Zoser, 19 years, 2 months.

7. Zoser-teta, 6 years.

8. Sezes.

9. Nefer-ka-Ra I., 6 years.

10. Huni, 24 years.

DYNASTY IV. (MEMPHITES).

1. Snefru, 24 years.

2. Sharu.

3. Khufu (Cheops), 23 years.

4. Ra-dad-f, 8 years.

5. Kh-f-Ha (Chephren).

6. Men-kau-Ra (Mykerinos).

7. Shepseskaf.

DYNASTY V. (ELEPHANTINES).

1. User-ka-f, 28 years.

2. Sahu-Ra, 4 years.

3. Kaka, 2 years.

4. Nefer-ar-ka-Ra I., 7 years.

5. Shepses-ka-Ra, 12 years.

6. Kh-nefer-Ra.

7. Ra-n-user An, 25 years.

8. Men-ka-Hor, 8 years.

9. Dad-ka-Ra Assa, 28 years.

10. Unas, 30 years.

11. Akau-Hor, 7 years.

DYNASTY VI. (ELEPHANTINES).

1. Teta III.

2. User-ka-Ra.

3. Meri-Ra Pepi I., 20 years.

4. Mer-en-Ra Miht-em-saf I., 14 years.

5. Nefer-ka-Ra II. Pepi II., 94 years.

6. Mer-en-Ra Miht-em-saf II., 1 year, 1 month.

7. Neit-aker (Nitkris), a queen.

DYNASTIES VII. AND VIII. (MEMPHITES).

1. Nefer-ka, 2 years, 1 month, 1 day.

2. Neferus, 4 years, 2 months, 1 day.

3. Ab-en-Ra I., 2 years, 1 month, 1 day.

4. ... 1 year, 8 days.

5. Ab-en-Ra II.

6. Hanti.

7. Pest-sat-en-Sopd.

8. Pait-Kheps.

9. Serhlinib.

...

Dad-nefer-Ra Dudumes.

...

Neter-ka-Ra.

Men-ka-Ra.

Nefer-ka-Ra III.

Nefer-ka-Ra IV. Nebi.

Dad-ka-Ea Shema.

Nefer-ka-Ra V. Khondu.

Mer-en-Hor.

Snefer-ka I.

Ka-n-Ra.

Nefer-ka-Ra VI. Terel.

Nefer-ka-Hor.

Nefer-ka-Ra VII. Pepi-seneb.

Snefer-ka II. Annu.

[User]-kau-Ra.

Nefer-kau-Ra.

Nefer-kau-Hor.

Nefer-ar-ka-Ra II.

DYNASTY IX. (HERAKLEOPOLITES).

1. Khiti or Khruti I. Mer-ab-Ra

...

Ma-ab-Ra.

Kh-user-Ra.

a-hotep-Ra.

Skh-n-Ra.

Aah-mes (?)-Ra.

Se-n (?)-mu-Ra.

DYNASTY X. (HERAKLEOPOLITES).

Mer-ka-Ea.

...

Ra-hotep-ab Amu-si-Hor-nez-hirtef.

...

Nefer-ka-Ra VIII.

Khiti II.

Se-heru-herri.

[Ameni?]

According to Lauth, the Turin Papyrus gives 19 kings to the Tenth dynasty, and 185 years.

DYNASTY XI. (THEBAN).

1. Antef I. Seshes-Hor-ap-ma-Ra Antuf-a, prince of Thebes.

2. Neb-hotep Mentu-hotep I.

3. Uah-ankh [Ter(?)-] seshes-ap-ma-Ra Antef-a II., his son.

4. Seshes-herher-ma-Ra-Antef III., his brother.

5. Neter-nefer Neb-taui-Ra Mentu-hotep II.

6. Nub-kheper-Ra Antauf, more than 50 years.

7. Neb-khru-Ra Mentu-hotep III., more than 46 years.

8. A'a'h, a queen.

9. Antef V., her son.

10. S-nkh-ka-Ra I.

According to Lauth, the Turin Papyrus makes the sum of the Eleventh dynasty 243 years, Neb-khru-Ra reigning 51 years.

DYNASTY XII. (THEBAN).

1. Amon-em-hat I. S-hotep-ab-Ra, alone 20 years. With Usertesen I., 10 years.

2. Usertesen I. Kheper-ka-Ra, alone 32 years. With Amon-em-hat II., 3 years.

3. Amon-em-hat II. Nub-kau-Ra, alone 29 years. With Usertesen II., 6 years.

4. Usertesen II. Kh-kheper-Ra, 19 years.

5. Usertesen III. Kh-kau-Ra, 38 years.

6. Amon-em-hat III. Mat-en-Ra, 43 years.

7. Amon-em-hat IV. Ma-khru-Ra, 9 years, 3 months, 27 days.

8. Sebek-nefru-Ra, a, queen, 3 years, 10 months, 24 days.

The Turin Papyrus makes the sum of the Twelfth dynasty 213 years, 1 month, 17 days.

DYNASTIES XIII. (THEBAN) AND XIV. (XOITE).

According to the Turin Papyrus:

1. Sebek-hotep I. Sekhem-khu-taui-Ra, son of Sebek-nefru-Ra, 1 year, 3 months, 24 days.

2. Sekhem-ka-Ra, 6 years.

3. Ra Amon-em-hat V.

4. S-hotep-ab-Ra II.

5. Aufni, 2 years.

6. S-nkh-ab-Ra Ameni Antuf Amon-em-hat VI., 1 year.

7. S-men-ka-Ra.

8. S-hotep-ab-Ra III.

9. S-nkh-ka-Ra II.

10, 11. Names lost.

12. Nezem-ab-Ra.

13. Ra Sebek-hotep II.

14. Ren-seneb.

15. Autu-ab-Ra I. Hor.

16. Sezef-ka-Ra.

17. Sekhem-khu-taui-Ra II. Sebek-hotep III.

18. User-en-Ra.

19. S-menkh-ka-Ra Mer-menfiu.

20. ... ka-Ra.

21. S-user-set-Ra.

22. Sokhem-uaz-taui-Ka Sebek-hotep IV.

23. Kh-seshesh-Ra Nefer-hotep, son of Ra-nkh-f.

24. Si-Hathor-Ra.

25. Kh-nefer-Ra Sebek-hotop V.

26. [Kh-ka-Ra].

27. [Kh-nkh-Ra Sebek-hotep VI.]

28. Kh-hotep-Ra Sebek-hotep VII., 4 years, 8 months, 29 days.

29. Uab-Ra a-ab, 10 years, 8 months, 29 days.

30. Mer-nefer-Ea Ai, 23 (or 13) years, 8 months, 18 days.

31. Mer-hotep-Ra Ana, 2 years, 2 months, 9 days.

32. S-nkh-en-s-uaztu-Ra, 3 years, 2 months.

33. Mer-sekhem-Ra Andu, 3 years, 1 month.

34. S-uaz-ka-Ra Ur, 5 years, ... months, 8 days.

35. Anemen ... Ra.

36-46. Names lost.

47. Mer-kheper-Ra.

48. Mer-kau-Ra Sebek-hotep VIII.

49-53. Names lost.

54. ... mes-Ra.

55. ... mt-Ra Aba.

56. Nefer-uben-Ra I.

57. ... ka-Ra.

58. S-uaz-en-Ra.

59-60. Names lost.

61. Nehasi-Ra.

62. Kh-khru-Ra.

63. Neb-f-autu-Ra, 2 years, 5 months, 15 days.

64. S-heb-Ra, 3 years.

65. Mor-zefa-Ra, 3 years.

66. S-uaz-ka-Ra, 1 year.

67. Neb-zofa-Ra, 1 year.

68. Uben-Ra I.

69-70. Names lost.

71. [Neb-] zefa-Ra II., 4 years.

72. [Nefer-] uben-Ea II.

73. Autu-ab-Ra II.

74. Her-ab-Ra.

75. Neb-sen-Ra.

76-79. Names lost.

80. S-kheper-en-Ra.

81. Dad-khru-Ra.

82. S-nkh-ka-Ra III.

83. Nefer-tum-Ra.

84. Sekhem-...-Ra.

85. Ka-...-Ra.

86. Nefer-ab-Ra.

87. A...ka-Ra.

88. Kh-...-Ra, 2 years.

89. Nez-ka-...-Ra.

90. S-men-...-Ra.

91-111. Names lost.

112. Sekhem-...-Ra.

113. Sekhem-...-Ra.

114. Sekhem-us...-Ra.

115. Sesen-...-Ra.

116. Neb-ati-uzu-Ra.

117. Neb-aten-uzu-Ra.

118. S-men-ka-Ra.

119. S-user-...-Ra.

120. Kh-sekhem-[hent]-Ra.

About thirty-seven more names are illegible.

DYNASTIES XV., XVI. AND XVII. (HYKSOS).

According to Josephus, quoted from Mauetho:—

1. Salatis, 13 years.

2. Beon or Bnn, 44 years.

3. Apakhnas or Pakhnan, 36 years, 7 months.

4. Apphis, 61 years.

5. Iannas or Annas, 50 years, 1 month.

6. Assis, 49 years, 2 months.

...

Ya'qob-hal (Jacob-el).

...

Khian (Iannas) S-user-Set-en-Ra.

...

Apopi I. Aa-user-Ra (reigned more than 33 years).

...

Apopi III. Ra-a-kenen.

A dynasty of Theban princes was contemporary with the Seventeenth Hyksos dynasty, the last four of whom were independent:

Skenen-Ra Taa I. (revolted against Apopi III.).

Skenen-Ra Taa II. Aa.

Skenen-Ra Taa III. Ken.

Uaz-kheper-Ra Ka-mes and wife Aah-hotep.

DYNASTY XVIII. (THEBAN).

1. Neb-pehuti-Ra Aahmes I. (Amosis), more than 20 years.

2. Ser-ka-Ra Amon-hotep I., his son (Amenophis I,), 20 years, 7 months.

3. Aa-kheper-ka-Ra Dehuti Dehuti-mes I., his son, and queen Amen-sit.

4. Aa-kheper-en-Ra Dehuti-mes II., his son (more than 9 years), and wife (and sister) Hatshepsu II. M-ka-Ra (daughter of Hatshepsu I.).

5. Khnum-Amon Hatshepsu II. M-ka-Ra, more than 16 years.

6. Ra-men-kheper Dehuti-mes (Thothmes) III., her half-brother, 57 years, 11 months, 1 day (B.C. 1503, March 20, to 1449 February 14, according to Dr. Mahler's astronomical determination).

7. Aa-khepru-Ra Amon-hotep II., his son, more than 5 years.

8. Men-khepru-Ra Dehuti-mes IV., his son, more than 7 years.

9. Neb-m-Ra Amon-hotep III., his son (more than 35 years), and wife Teie.

10. Neter-khepru-Ra Amon-hotep IV. Khu-n-Aten, his son, more than 17 years.

11. Ankh-khepru-Ra and wife Meri-Aten.

12. Tut-nkh-Amon Khepru-neb-Ra and wife Ankh-nes-Amon.

13. Aten-Ra-nefer-nefru—mer-Aten.

14. Ai Kheper-khepru-ar-m-Ra, more than 4 years.

15. Hor-em-hib (Armais) Mi-Amon Ser-khepru-ka, more than 3 years.

DYNASTY XIX. (THEBAN).

1. Men-pehuti-Ra Ramessu I. (Ramesses), more than 2 years.

2. Men-m-Ra Seti I. (Sethos) Mer-en-Ptah I., more than 27 years.

3. User-m-Ra (Osymandyas) Sotep-en-Ra Ramessu II. (Ramses) Mi-Amon (the Sesostris of the Greeks), B.C. 1348-1281 (according to Dr. Mahler).

4. Mer-en-Ptah II. (Ammenephthes) Hotep-hi-ma Ba-n-Ra Mi-Amon.

5. User-khepru-Ra Seti II. Mer-en-Ptah III.

6. Amon-messu Hik-An Mer-kha-Ra Sotep-en-Ra.

7. Khu-n-Ra Sotop-en-Ra Mer-en-Ptah IV. Si-Ptah and wife Ta-user.

DYNASTY XX. (THEBAN).

1. Set-nekht Merer Mi-Amon (recovered the kingdom from the Canaanite

Arisu).

2. Ramessu III. Hik-an, more than 32 years.

3. Ramessu IV. Hik-M Mi-Amon, more than 11 years.

4. Ramessu V. User-m-s-kheper-en-Ra Mi-Amon, more than 4 years.

5. Ramessu VI. Neb-m-Ra Mi-Amon Amon-hir-kho-pesh-ef (called Meri-Tum in northern Egypt).

6. Ramessu VII. At-Amon User-m-Ra Mi-Amon.

7. Ramessu VIII. Set-hir-kho-pesh-ef Mi-Amon User-m-Ra Khu-n-Amon.

8. Ramessu IX. Si-Ptah S-kh-n-Ra Mi-Amon, 19 years.

9. Ramessu X. Nefer-ka-Ra Mi-Amon Sotep-en-Ra, more than 10 years.

10. Ramessu XI. Amon-hir-kho-pesh-ef Kheper-m-Ra Sotep-en-Ra.

11. Ramessu XII. Men-m-Ra Mi-Amon Sotep-en-Ptah Kh-m-uas, more than 27 years.

DYNASTY XXI. (TANITE).

1. Nes-Bindidi (Smendes) Mi-Amon.

2. P-seb-kh-n I. (Psusennes I.) Mi-Amon Aa-kheper-Ra Sotep-en-Amon.

3. [Nefer-ka-Ra] (Nephelkheres).

4. Amon-em-apt (Amenophthis).

5. ... (Osokhor).

6. Pinezem (?) (Psinakhes).

7. Hor-P-seb-kh-n II. (Psusennes II.).

Contemporary with the Twenty-first dynasty was an illegitimate dynasty of high-priests at Thebes:—

(1.) Hir-Hor Si-Amon.

(2.) Piankhi.

(3.) Pinezem I.

(4.) Pinezem II. with title of "king."

(5.) Men-kheper-Ra and wife Isis-em-kheb.

(6.) Pinezem III.

DYNASTY XXII. (BUBASTITE).

1. Shashanq I. (Shishak) Mi-Amon Hez-kheper-Ra Sotep-en-Ra, son of Nemart, captain of the Libyan mercenaries, more than 21 years.

2. Usarkon I. Mi-Amon Sek-hem-kheper-Ra.

3. Takelet I. Mi-Amon Si-Isis User-m-Ra Sotep-en-Amon, more than 23 years.

4. Usarkon II. Mi-Amon Si-Bast User-m-Ra, more than 23 years.

5. Shashanq II. Mi-Amon Sek-hem-kheper-Ra.

6. Takelet II. Mi-Amon Si-Isis Hez-kheper-Ra, more than 15 years.

7. Shashanq III. Mi-Amon Si-Bast User-m-Ra, 52 years.

8. Pimai Mi-Amon User-m-Ra Sotep-en-Amon.

9. Shashanq IV. Aa-kheper-Ra, more than 37 years.

DYNASTY XXIII.

1. S-hir-ab-Ra Petu-si-Bast.

2. Usarkon III. Mi-Amon Aa-kheper-Ra Sotep-en-Amon.

3. P-si-Mut User-Ra Sotep-en-Ptah.

Interregnum.

Egypt is divided between several princes, including Tef-nekht, father of Bak-en-ran-ef. It is overrun by Piankhi the Ethiopian, while Usarkon III. reigns at Bubastis. The son and successor of Piankhi was Mi-Amon-Nut.

DYNASTY XXIV. (SAITE).

Bak-en-ran-ef (Bokkhoris) Uah-ka-Ra, more than 16 years.

DYNASTY XXV. (ETHIOPIAN).

1. Shabaka (Sabako) Nefer-ka-Ra, son of Kashet, 12 years.

2. Shabatoka (Sebikhos) Dad-ka-Ra.

3. Taharka (Tirhakah) Nefer-Tum-khu-Ra, 26 years.

Interregnum.

Egypt is conquered by the Assyrian king Esar-haddon, and divided into 20 satrapies, B.C. 672-660. Taharka and his successor Urdamanu (Rud-Amon), or Tan-damanu (Tuant-Amon), make vain attempts to recover it. Finally, Psamtik, son of Niku (Necho), satrap of Sais, shakes off the foreign yoke.

DYNASTY XXVI. (SAITE).

1. Psamtik I. (Psammeti-khos) Uah-ab-Ra 664 B.C.

2. Nekau (Necho) Nem-ab-Ra 610 B.C.

3. Psamtik II. Nefer-ab-Ra 594 B.C.

4. Uah-ab-Ra (Apries or Hophra) Haa-ab-Ra 589 B.C.

5. Aahmes II. (Amasis) Si-Nit Khnum-ab-Ra 570 B.C.

6. Psamtik III. Ankh-ka-n-Ra 526 B.C.

DYNASTY XXVII. (PERSIAN)

1. Kambathet (Cambyses), Sam-taui Mestu-Ra 525 B.C.

2. Ntariush (Darius I.) Settu-Ra 521 B.C.

3. Khabbash Senen Tanen Sotep-en-Ptah, native prince 485 B.C.

4. Khsherish (Xerxes) 484 B.C.

5. Artakhsharsha (Artaxerxes) 465 B.C.

6. Ntariush (Darius II.) Mi-Amon-Ra 424 B.C.

DYNASTY XXVIII. (SAITE).

Amon-art-t-rut (Amyrtus), more than 6 years 415 B.C.

DYNASTY XXIX. (MENDESIAN).

1. Nef-a-rut I. Ba-n-Ra Mi-neteru, more than 4 years.

2. Hakori Khnum-m-R Sotep-en-Ptah, 13 years.

3. P-si-Mut User-Ptah-sotep-en-Ra, 1 year.

4. Hor-neb-kha, 1 year.

5. Nef-a-rut II., 1 year.

DYNASTY XXX. (SEBENNYTE).

1. Nekht-Hor-hib Ra-snezem-ab Sotep-en-Anhur, son of Nef-a-rut I., 19

years.

2. Zihu (Teos), 1 year.

3. Nekht-neb-ef (Nektanebo) Kheper-ka-Ra, 18 years.

Egypt reconquered by the Persians, B.C. 349.