The Holy Scriptures

From the Double Point of View of Science and of Faith

By Franšois Samuel Robert Louis Gaussen

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTORY (Propositions 1-5,)




CHAPTER I. Definitions of the Canon, (Propositions 6-7,)
CHAPTER II. The Idea of a New Testament Canon as early as the Days of the Apostles, (Propositions 8-10,)
CHAPTER III. The Church, from the Commencement, regarded the Collection of Scriptures as a harmonic whole, (Propositions 11-13,)
CHAPTER IV. First Formation of the Canon, (Propositions 14-23.)
CHAPTER V. Oral Preaching was of necessity by some years anterior to Written Preaching, or the Gift of New Scriptures, (Proposition 24)
CHAPTER VI. Historical Division of the Canon into Three distinct Parts, Per. 25-29,)
CHAPTER VII. This Threefold Division of the Canon is, moreover, warranted by the most authentic Documents of the Church, (Proposition 30,)
    SECTION FIRST. — Three Ante-Nicene Catalogues, (Proposition 31,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Peshito Catalogue, (Propositions 32-86,)
    SECTION THIRD. — Origen’s Catalogue, (Propositions 37-42,)


SECTION FOURTH. — The Catalogue of Eusebius, (Propositions 43-50,)

CHAPTER VIII. Of the Council of Nice and its Results, (Proposition 51,)
    SECTION FIRST. — The Council made no Decree on the Canon, (Propositions 52, 53,)


SECTION SECOND. — From the Date of the Council all disagreement regarding the Controverted Books ceased in all the Churches in Christendom, (Proposition 54,)

CHAPTER IX. The Eleven Authentic Catalogues of the Fourth Century (Proposition 55,)
    SECTION FIRST. — Unanimity of all the Catalogue as to the First Canon, the Second Canon, and the Epistle to the Hebrews, (Proposition 56,)

SECTION SECOND. — Catalogues of the Fathers and Catalogues of the Councils (Proposition 57,)

CHAPTER X. The Nine Catalogues of the Fourth Century given by the Fathers,
    SECTION FIRST. — Only Three of them omit the Apocalypse, (Propositions 58-63,)

SECTION SECOND. — All the other Six Catalogues of the Fathers of the Fourth Century are entirely on accordance with the Canon of the Churches, (Propositions 64-77,)

CHAPTER XI. Some other Catalogues, alleged to be of the Fourth Century, and agreeing with our Canon, are Apocryphal or spurious (Proposition 78,)
    SECTION FIRST. — Catalogue of Innocent I. Propositions 79, 80,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Catalogue of Peas. (Proposition 81,)

SECTION THIRD. — Catalogue of Amphilochius, (Proposition 82,)

CHAPTER XII. The Two Catalogues drawn up by Councils of the Fourth Century,
    SECTION FIRST. — Nature of their Testimony, (Propositions 83-86,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Council of Laodicea, (Propositions 87-90,)

SECTION THIRD. — The Council of Carthage, (Propositions 91-93.)

CHAPTER XIII. Summary of all the Testimonies of the Fourth Century, (Proposition 94,)
CHAPTER XIV. Vulgar Prejudices which a glance at these Facts ought to have removed, (Propositions 95-102,)
CHAPTER XV. Inference from all the Testimonies of the First Four Centuries, (Propositions 103-106,)


Of the First Canon — Historical Basis of its Authenticity (Propositions 107, 108,)
CHAPTER I. First Great Historical Fact — The complete and unvarying Unanimity of the Churches, (Propositions 109-112,)
CHAPTER II. The Authenticity of the Twenty-two Homologoumena of the New Testament is established by incomparably stronger evidence than what exists in favour of the Authenticity of any other Book of Antiquity whatever, (Propositions 113-125,)
CHAPTER III. Three causes, especially, produced this Providential Unanimity,
    SECTION FIRST. — The long career of the Apostles, (Propositions 126-134,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The immense number of Churches at the death of the Apostles, (Propositions 135-144,)

SECTION THIRD. — Anagnosis, (Propositions 145-163,)

CHAPTER IV. The various Monuments of the Canon,
    SECTION FIRST. — Four Classes of Monuments, (Proposition 164,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The field of research, (Propositions 165-168,)

SECTION THIRD. — The actors and witnesses of the Two First Centuries of the Church presented in a Tabular Form, (Proposition 169,)

CHAPTER V. The Testimony of the Fathers of the Second Half of the Second Century,
    SECTION FIRST. — The united Testimonies of IrenŠus, Clement, and Tertullian, (Propositions 170-172,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Seven characteristics of their Testimony, (Proposition 173,)
    SECTION THIRD. — Tertullian, (Propositions 174-176)
    SECTION FOURTH. — Clement of Alexandria, (Propositions 177-179,)
    SECTION FIFTH. —  IrenŠus (Propositions 180-185,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — Other contemporary Fathers, (Propositions 186, 187,)

SECTION SEVENTH. — The results of of all their Testimonies, (Propositions 188-192.)

CHAPTER VI. The Fragment called Muratori’s, (Propositions 193-198,)
CHAPTER VII. The Testimony of the First Half of the Second Century, (Proposition 199,)
    SECTION FIRST. — Justin Martyr, (Propositions 200-206,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Objections against the Testimony of Justin Martyr, (Propositions 207, 208,)

SECTION THIRD. — Other Historical Mouments of the Canon in the First Half of the Second Century (Propositions 209, 210,)

CHAPTER VIII. The Testimony of Pagan Unbelievers in the Second Century,
    SECTION FIRST. — Their Writings, (Proposition 211,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Testimony of Celsus, (Propositions 219-215,

SECTION THIRD. — Force of this Testimony, (Proposition 216,)

CHAPTER IX. The Testimony of Heretics in the First Half of the Second Century,
    SECTION FIRST. — The character of this Testimony, (Propositions 217-220,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Marcion, (Propositions 221-225,)
    SECTION THIRD. — Tatian, (Proposition 226,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — Valentine and the Valentinians, (Propositions 227-229,)
    SECTION FIFTH. — Heracleon and, Ptolemy, (Propositions 230, 231,)

SECTION SIXTH. — Basilides rand his son Isidore: (Propositions 232-235,)

CHAPTER X. The Apostolic Fathers,
    SECTION FIRST. — Their Small Number and their Value, (Propositions 236-239,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The Epistle to Diognetus, (Propositions 240, 241,)
    SECTION THIRD. — The Circular Epistle of the Church of Smyrna, (Proposition 242,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — The Epistle of Polycarp, (Propositions 243-247,)
    SECTION FIFTH. — Ignatius, his Martyrdom and Letters, (Propositions 248-253,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — The Epistle of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, (Propositions 254-262,)

SECTION SEVENTH. — Inference from the Testimony of the Apostolic Fathers, (Proposition 263,)

CHAPTER XI. The later Writings of the New Testament attest the existence of a Canon already begun, (Propositions 264-267,)


The Second-First Canon, (Proposition 268,)

CHAPTER I. The Apocalypse,
    SECTION FIRST. — Its First Reception, (Propositions 269-272,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The Date of the Apocalypse, (Propositions 278, 274,)
    SECTION THIRD. — The Apocalypses in the First Century, (Proposition 275,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — Testimonies in the First Half of the Second Century, (Propositions 276-279,)
    SECTION FIFTH. — Testimonies in the Second Half of the same Century, (Proposition 280,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — The First Half of the Third Century, (Propositions 281-283,)
    SECTION SEVENTH. — The Second Halt of the Third Century, (Propositions 284, 285,)
    SECTION EIGHTH. — Witnesses in the Fourth Century, (Propositions 286-289,)

SECTION NINTH. — Fifth Century, (Proposition 290,)

CHAPTER II. The Epistle to the Hebrews,
    SECTION FIRST. — Its character and History, (Propositions 291-295,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The Testimonies of the East in. the Fourth Century, (Propositions 296-299,)
    SECTION THIRD. — Witnesses of the East in the Third Century, (Proposition 300,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — Witnesses of the East  in the Second Century, (Propositions 301-303,)
    SECTION FIFTH. — Witnesses of the East in the First Century, (Propositions 304, 305,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — Testimonies of the West, (Propositions 306-311,)
    SECTION SEVENTH. — Recapitulation of these Testimonies, (Proposition 312,)
    SECTION EIGHTH. — The Pauline authorship of this Epistle, (Propositions 313-315,)

SECTION NINTH. — Objections, (Propositions 316-320,)



The Second Canon; or, The Five Antilegomena

CHAPTER I. General Facts, (Propositions 321-324,)
CHAPTER II. The Epistle of James,
    SECTION FIRST. — Its Importance, (Propositions 325, 326,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Its Immediate Reception by that Portion of the Church to which it was first addressed, (Propositions 327, 328,)
    SECTION THIRD, — Its Date, (Proposition 329,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — Causes of the Hesitation of some Churches, (Proposition 330,)
    SECTION FIFTH. — Witnesses, (Propositions 331-335,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — Its Excellence, (Proposition 336,)

SECTION SEVENTH. — Which James is its Author? (Propositions 337-340.)

CHAPTER III. The Second Epistle of Peter,
    SECTION FIRST. — The study which it claims, (Proposition 341)
    SECTION SECOND. — The Epistle affirms that it was written by Peter, (Proposition 342,)
    SECTION THIRD. — The majestic character of this Epistle strongly confirms this testimony, (Propositions 3438, 344,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — The obstacles to its Acceptance, (Proposition 345,)
    SECTION FIFTH. — Its Style, (Proposition 346,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — Its History, (Proposition 347,)
    SECTION SEVENTH. — The definitive assent of all the Christian Churches was late, (Proposition 348,)
    SECTION EIGHTH. — The successive assent has been slow (Propositions 349-353.)

SECTION NINTH. — The assent on the appearance. of the Book was immediate among a part of the a Churches, (Propositions 354-359,)

CHAPTER IV. The Two Shorter Epistles of John, (Proposition 360-363)
CHAPTER V. The Epistle of Jude,
    SECTION FIRST. — (Proposition 364)
    SECTION SECOND. — The Author of the Epistle, (Propositions 365-367,)
    SECTION THIRD. — Its Date, (Propositions 368, 369,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — Objections against this Epistle, (Propositions 370-372,)
    SECTION FIFTH. — Alleged citations of Apocryphal Books, (Propositions 373-380,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — Testimonies of the Second Confers (Propositions 381-384,)
    SECTION SEVENTH. — Testimonies of the Third Century, (Proposition 385,)

SECTION EIGHTH. — Testimonies of the Fourth Century, (Proposition 386,)

CHAPTER VI. General considerations on the Antilegomena, (Propositions 387-400,)



INTRODUCTORY, (Propositions 401-403,)


The Two Methods open for the Knowledge of the Canon, (Proposition 404,)

CHAPTER I. Comparison of the Two Methods, (Propositions 405-409,)
CHAPTER II. Objections to the Method of Science, (Proposition 410,)
    SECTION FIRST. — Its Novelty, (Proposition 411,)
    SECTION SECOND. — Its Inaccessibility, (Proposition 412,)
    SECTION THIRD. — Its Want of Spirituality, (Proposition 413,)

SECTION FOURTH. — Its Dangers, (Propositions 414, 415,)

CHAPTER III. The advantages of the Method of Faith, (Propositions 416, 417,)
CHAPTER IV. The true use of Science in relation to the Canon, (Propositions 418, 419,)


The Doctrine relating to the Canon, (Propositions 420, 421,)

CHAPTER I. First Class of Proofs taken from the Wisdom and Faithfulness of God, (Proposition 422,)
    SECTION FIRST. — Books of the Old Testament which are said to have been Lost, (Propositions 423-426,)

SECTION SECOND. — Books of the New Testament which are said to have been Lost, (Propositions 427-482,)

CHAPTER II. Second Class of Proofs founded on the Canon of the Old Testament, (Proposition 433,)
    SECTION FIRST. — The astonishing and immovable Unanimity of the Jews on the subject of the Canon, (Propositions 4384, 435,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The Testimony of the Apostles to the Canon, (Proposition 436,)
    SECTION THIRD. — The Testimony of Jesus Christ, Proposition 437,)
    SECTION FOURTH.  — First Inference relative to the old Testament, (Propositions 438-441,)

SECTION FIFTH. — The Second Inference, relating to the New Testament, (Propositions 442-449,)

CHAPTER III. Third Class of Proofs taken from the Declarations of Scripture, (Propositions 450-453,)
CHAPTER IV. Fourth Class of Proofs — An assemblage of Facts relative to the Old Testament, attesting a Divine Intervention in its Preservation by the Jewish nation,
    SECTION FIRST. — The constant and wonderful Fidelity of the Jews in reference to the Canon, from Moses to Jesus Christ,

      The First Fact, (Proposition 454,)

     The Second Fact, (Proposition 455,)

     The Third Fact, (Proposition 456,)

     The Fourth Fact, (Proposition 457,)

    SECTION SECOND. — The Fidelity, not less astonishing, of the Jews to their Canon since Jesus Christ to the Present Time,

     The Fifth Fact, (Proposition 458,)

     The Sixth Fact, (Proposition 459,)

    SECTION THIRD. — The Text compared with the onion,

     The Seventh Fact, (Propositions 460-463.)

    SECTION FOURTH. — The serious Divisions of the Jews,

     The Eighth Fact, (Proposition 464,)


SECTION FIFTH. — The Example of Jesus and His Apostles in relation to the Apocrypha, .

     The Ninth Fact, (Propositions 465, 466,)

    SECTION SIXTH. — Divine Injunctions,

     The Tenth Fact, (Proposition 467,)


SECTION SEVENTH. — The Divine Dispensations,

     The Eleventh Fact, (Propositions 468, 469,)


SECTION EIGHTH. — The Calamities of the Jews,

     The Twelfth Fact, (Proposition 470,)

    SECTION NINTH. — The Miracle of their Race,

     The Thirteenth Fact, (Proposition 471,)

    SECTION TENTH. — Human Books intruded into the Jewish Canon by one of the Christian sects,

     The Fourteenth Fact, (Propositions 472-474,)

    SECTION ELEVENTH. — The Testimony of the Eastern Church,

     The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Facts, (Propositions 475479,

    SECTION TWELFTH. — The Resistance of the Eastern Church is rendered more striking by the universality of the use of the Septuagint,

     The Seventeenth Fact, (Proposition 480,)

    SECTION THIRTEENTH. — Inference to be drawn from these Seventeen Facts, (Propositions 481-483,)
CHAPTER V. On the Apocrypha,
CHAPTER VI. Fifth Class of Proofs — A new assemblage of Facts relating to the New Testament (Proposition 520,)

SECTION FIRST. — The Unanimity of all the Churches,

     The First Fact, (Propositions 521-526,)


SECTION SECOND. — The exceptional Liberty which always presided over the Destinies of the Canon,

     The Second Fact, (Propositions 527-530,)


SECTION THIRD. — The Progress of Minds in a way reverse of their natural direction,

     The Third Fact, (Proposition 531,)


SECTION FOURTH. — During the two centuries and a half in which the Ancient Church still hesitated respecting the Antilegomena, she never received a Spurious Book into the Canon,

     The Fourth Fact, (Proposition 532,):


SECTION FIFTH. — The astonishing Independence of the Church in reference to its Literary Opponents on the subject of the Canon,

     The Fifth Fact, (Propositions 533-546,)


The attempts of the Church of Rome against the Scriptures, compared with her reserve towards the Canon of the New Testament, strongly attest the Divine Agency by a novel class of facts,

     The Sixth Fact, (Props 547-549,)

    SECTION FIRST. — Her Dogmas and Rites opposed to the Scriptures, (Proposition 550,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The Infallibility of Rome opposed to that of the Scriptures, (Proposition 551,)
    SECTION THIRD. — The aversion of Rome to the Written Word, (Proposition 552,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — The anxiety of Rome to keep the Bible at a distance from the People, and the People from it, (Propositions 553-558.)
    SECTION FIFTH. — The long and cruel Severities of the Church of Rome inflicted on those who wish to read the Scriptures in the vulgar tongue, (Propositions 559-562,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — The Decrees of the Church of Rome reduce the Scriptures to a level with Tradition, (Propositions 563, 564,)
    SECTION SEVENTH. — The Decrees of the Church of Rome place the Scriptures below the Roman Pontiff, (Proposition 565,)

SECTION EIGHTH. — The  power of all these Facts united to confirm the Doctrine of the Canon, (Propositions 566-568,)

CHAPTER VIII. The Seventh Class of Facts — the Pious Frauds in support of the Doctrines and Pretensions of the Roman Pontiffs (Propositions 569-571,)
    SECTION FIRST. — The False Decretals, (Propositions 572-576,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The Donation of Constantine, (Propositions 577, 578,)
    SECTION THIRD. — False Books of the Fathers fabricated or quoted, (Propositions 579-581,)
    SECTION FOURTH. — The Breviary, (Propositions 582-584.)
    SECTION FIFTH. — The Genuine Works of the Fathers falsified, (Propositions 585-592,)
    SECTION SIXTH. — The Index Expurgatorius, (Propositions 593-597,)

SECTION SEVENTH. — Conclusion of this Chapter, (Propositions 598, 599,)

CHAPTER IX. The Decisive Adoption of the Second Canon contrary to the Natural Inclination of Men’s Minds,

     Eighth Fact, (Propositions 600-610,)

CHAPTER X. The Wonderful Preservation of the Original Text,

     Ninth Fact, (Propositions 611-615,)

CHAPTER XI. The Striking Contrast between the Errors of Rome regarding the Old Testament, and its Fidelity regarding the New,

     Tenth Fact, (Propositions 616-621,)

CHAPTER XII. The Destinies of the Epistle to the Hebrews,

     Eleventh Fact, (Propositions 622-625,)

    SECTION FIRST. — The variations of Rome three times in three hundred years, (Propositions 622, 623,)
    SECTION SECOND. — The firmness of Rome since the fixation of the Canon, (Propositions 624, 625,)

SECTION THIRD. — Two considerations which render this Proof more striking, (Propositions 626-630,)

CHAPTER XIII. The great Manifestations of that Providence which preserves the Oracles of God, rendering it visible on three occasions in the stormy times of Diocletian, of Charles V., and of Napoleon I., (Proposition 631,)

SECTION FIRST. — The Wonderful Preservation of the Scriptures after the Persecutions of the Fourth Century,

     Twelfth Fact, (Propositions 632-637,)

    SECTION SECOND. — The Restoration of the Bible by means of the Reformation at the beginning of the Sixteenth Century, (Propositions 638-657,)
    SECTION THIRD. — The Bible Society, at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, circulating the Scriptures throughout the World, (Propositions 658-676,)
CHAPTER XIV. Final Inferences, (Propositions 677-682,)
  SECTION FIRST. — History of the Apocrypha to the time of the Council of Trent, (Propositions 484-488.)
  SECTION SECOND. — Unanimity of the Testimony of the Church against the Decree of the Council of Trent, (Propositions 489-492,)
  SECTION THIRD. — The Allegations of the Defenders of the Decree, (Propositions 493-519,)