◄470-350 BC | Timeline 350-230 BC (Inter-Testamental Period Part 1) | 240-120 BC►

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Notes on the Nations
Books of the Bible
Notes on Israel
   Persian Empire 550-358BC
               Holman Bible Dictionary
          Artaxerxes III 358-337BC (21)

End of the Old Testament Canon - c. 400 BC

          Arses 337-335BC (2)
          Darius III (5) 335-330BC
               333BC Battle of Issus - Alexander Made Persia a Greek Province

   The Kingdom of Greece 359-323 BC
          Philip of Macedonia 359-336BC (23)
          Alexander The Great 336-323BC (13)
                Fausset's Bible Dictionary
                Smith's Bible Dictionary
                  Alexander's Empire divided between his 4 Generals
                  Known as the Diadochi (link is offsite)
           We will look at 3 of the Kingdoms below
                  The Kingdom Macedonia (Greece)
                  Kingdom of the Seleucids (Asia
                  Kingdom of the Ptolemys (Egypt)

    Kingdom of Macedonia 315-168BC
          Antigonus I (Cyclops) 315-307BC (8)
          Demetrius I (Poliorgetes) 307-287BC (20)
          Antigonus II (Gonatas) 283-239BC (44)
          Demetrius II 239-229BC (10)

    Kingdom of the Seleucids 323-64BC
          Seleucus I (Nicator) 323-281BC (42)
          Antiochus I (Soter) 280-261BC (19)
          Antiochus II (Theos) 261-246BC (15)
          Seleucus II (Callinicus) 246-226BC (20)

   Kingdom of Egypt (?-30 BC)
              Holman Bible Dictionary
      30th Dynasty (37) 380 - 343BC
         Nectanebo II (17) 360-343BC
      31th Dynasty (11)  343 - 332BC
             Egypt Again Ruled By Persia (11) 343-332
      Egypt Ruled By Greece (10) 332-323

   Kingdom of the Ptolemys 323-30BC
          Ptolemy I (Soter I) 323-285BC (38)
          Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) 285-246BC (38)
          Ptolemy III (Evergetes I) 246-221BC (25)

          1st Punic War 264-241BC

  Governors of Judea
     Yehezqiyah (Hezekiah) (37) 370-333 BC
     Alexander the Great Rules Israel 333-323BC
     The Ptolemys Rule Israel 323-200BC (123)

  High Priests
     Jaddua 370-320BC
           Fausset's Bible Dictionary
           Smith's Bible Dictionary
     Onias I 320-280BC
           Smith's Bible Dictionary
     Simon I, 280-260BC
           Smith's Bible Dictionary
     Eleazar 260-245BC
     Manasseh 245-240BC
     Onias II 240-218BC
           Smith's Bible Dictionary

               Palestine after the Exile
               Alexander the Great's Empire
               The Division of Alexander's Empire ca. 275 BCE
               Palestine under the Ptolemies
               The Seleucid Empire and Antiochus III

Notes on Israel's Involvement With the Nations


     Notes on Daniel’s Prophecy of the 70 Weeks

Dan 9:24-27 NASB "Seventy weeks have been decreed for your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to make an end of sin, to make atonement for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy and to anoint the most holy {place.} "So you are to know and discern {that} from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince {there will be} seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; it will be built again, with plaza and moat, even in times of distress. "Then after the sixty-two weeks the Messiah will be cut off and have nothing, and the people of the prince who is to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. And its end {will come} with a flood; even to the end there will be war; desolations are determined. "And he will make a firm covenant with the many for one week, but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering; and on the wing of abominations {will come} one who makes desolate, even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one who makes desolate."

     In this prophecy, Daniel is told the exact date that the Messiah would come to redeem Israel & the world. The Timetable starts “from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem”. This event happened on 14th March, B.C. 445 when the king of Persia Artaxerxes Longitmanus issued a decree that Nehemiah was to return to Israel & rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. The Prophecy on 6th April, A.D. 32 when The Messiah Jesus entered Jerusalem in Psalm Sunday.

 Daniel is told of 3 timelines
  1. Seven weeks - 49 years, until the city and its walls are rebuilt
  2. 69 weeks (7 plus 62), 483 years from the decree, until Messiah the Prince appears
  3. A final 70th week to complete the prophecy

     The Hebrew word for “Weeks” (shabuwa or שבדצ) actually means seven or period of seven & can mean 7 days (Week) or 7 years (Sabbatical Year). So in this passage the term weeks should be read as 70 Sabbatical Years or 70 X 7 years. The Nation of Israel at the time of Daniel was using a calendar based on 12 lunar months of 30 days or 360 day years with an extra month added every few years to reset the calendar also known as a “Prophetic Year”.  The 70 X 7 must be based on this 360 day Prophetic Year (see also Rev 11:3 where 1260 days = 42 months = 3 ½ years)

Seven weeks and sixty-two weeks

     The first part of this timeline called “seven weeks” are 7 X 7 or 49 years refers to the actual rebuilding of Jerusalem that took 49 years

    The second part of this prophecy called “seven weeks and sixty-two weeks” Includes the above 7 weeks plus the 62 weeks for a total of 69 weeks or 69 Prophetic Years. According to Sir Robert Anderson in his book Daniel in the Critic's Den these 69 Prophetic Years add up to 173,880 and when recalculated into Julian Years of 365 days ends on 6th April, A.D. 32 or that exact day that Jesus entered Jerusalem on Psalm Sunday

     The Julian date of that 10th Nisan was Sunday the 6th April, A.D. 32.1 What then was the length of the period intervening between the issuing of the decree to rebuild Jerusalem and this public advent of" Messiah the Prince "- between the 14th March, B.C. 445, and the 6th April, A.D. 32? THE INTERVAL WAS EXACTLY AND TO THE VERY DAY 173,880 DAYS, OR SEVEN TIMES SIXTY-NINE PROPHETIC YEARS OF 360 DAYS.

     From B.C. 445 to AD. 32 is 476 years 273,740 days (476 X 365)+116 days for leap years. And from 14th March to 6th April (reckoned inclusively according to Jewish practice) is 24 days. But 173,740+116+24=173,880. And 69 X 7X 360= 173,880.
Chapter 9 Daniel in the Critic's Den

The 70th week

     The last week or the 70th week is still to come & refers to the 7 years of the tribulation period where The “Prince” or Anti-Christ will Stop the daily sacrifice & declare himself God. After this, he will attack the nation of Israel & finish the prophecy

     Notes on Daniel’s vision of World history from Cyrus to the Time of the End 

Dan 11:1 "In the first year of Darius the Mede, I arose to be an encouragement and a protection for him. NASB
Dan 11:2  "And now I will tell you the truth. Behold, three more kings are going to arise in Persia. Then a fourth will gain far more riches than all {of them;} as soon as he becomes strong through his riches, he will arouse the whole {empire} against the realm of Greece. NASB

Daniel is told this vision in “first year of Darius the Mede” or 539 BC & covers the next 200 years of the future. The prophecy is so accurate that all liberal atheists believe that the Book of Daniel had to be written much later. Their so-called “Logic” runs as follows:

  1. There is no God because we say there is none.

  2. Without a God, no one can predict the future.

  3. The Book of Daniel predicts the future so perfectly that if had to be written long after Daniel was dead because of # 1 & 2 above. 

According to this prophecy, there would be three more Persian kings & then a forth on would arise that would make war on Greece with a very large army (“arouse the whole empire”). The King of Persia when Daniel receives the vision is Cyrus (550-530BC) so the prophecy begins with his successors. The 3 kings the succeed Cyrus are
  1. Cambyses 530-522BC
  2. Smerdis 522BC
  3. Darius I 522-486BC
See Timeline 570-450 BC (The Exile Part 2)

The forth King to stand up would then be Xerxes 486-465BC. In 480, Xerxes attacked the Greek Mainland & began a 200 year rivalry between the two powers ending only when Alexander the Great defeated Persia. Notice the prophecy never says that there will only be 4 Persian kings, only that 4 will arise – it then skips the rest Persian history. 

Dan 11:3   "And a mighty king will arise, and he will rule with great authority and do as he pleases. NASB
Dan 11:4   "But as soon as he has arisen, his kingdom will be broken up and parceled out toward the four points of the compass, though not to his {own} descendants, nor according to his authority which he wielded, for his sovereignty will be uprooted and {given} to others besides them. NASB

With verse 3, the prophecy jumps to 336 BC & speaks of

  1. A mighty king who does as he pleases
  2. When he is at the peek of his live, his empire is split up into 4 smaller empires none of which are given to any of his offspring. 

In 336 BC, a man takes the throne in Greece. Within 13 years, he will conquer Persia as well as the rest of the Known world. This man was Alexander the Great. & in his 33rd year of life he will die & his vast empire would be split up between his 4 generals & his only offspring will be killed thus answering this part of the prophecy perfectly.

Dan 11:5  

"Then the king of the South will grow strong, along with {one} of his princes who will gain ascendancy over him and obtain dominion; his domain {will be} a great dominion {indeed.} NASB

Starting with Verse 5, the prophecy begins to cover the King of the South (Kingdom of the Ptolemys 323-30BC) & the King of the North (Kingdom of the Seleucids 323-64BC). 

The king of the South here is Ptolemy I (323-285BC). The “Prince” here is Seleucus I (323-281BC) who worked under Ptolemy I to defeat Antigonus I (315-307BC). Soon after the Defeat of Antigonus I, Seleucus I grew stronger & stronger until he became even stronger then Ptolemy I. Thus, Verse 5 answered perfectly as usual with biblical prophecy. 

Dan 11:6  

"After some years they will form an alliance, and the daughter of the king of the South will come to the king of the North to carry out a peaceful arrangement. But she will not retain her position of power, nor will he remain with his power, but she will be given up, along with those who brought her in and the one who sired her as well as he who supported her in {those} times. NASB 

Verse 6 skips to Ptolemy II ( 285-246BC) who’s daughter Berenice was married to

Antiochus II (261-246BC) who was forced to divorce his wife Laodiceia. In 246 BC, Ptolemy II died & Antiochus II quickly divorced Berenice & took back his first wife. Soon after, Antiochus II died. So just as the Bible said, neither king prospered over the marriage, Berenice never kept her power & was given up. 

Dan 11:7   "But one of the descendants of her line will arise in his place, and he will come against {their} army and enter the fortress of the king of the North, and he will deal with them and display {great} strength. NASB 
Dan 11:8   "Also their gods with their metal images {and} their precious vessels of silver and gold he will take into captivity to Egypt, and he on his part will refrain from {attacking} the king of the North for {some} years. NASB 
Dan 11:9   "Then the latter will enter the realm of the king of the South, but will return to his {own} land. NASB 

Verses 7-9 Prophecy what will happen under the next King of the South & North. In 246 BC, Ptolemy III (246-221BC) invaded the empire of Seleucus II (246-226 BC) Jerome describe this invasion on page 123 of his commentary on Daniel. 

He (Ptolemy III) came up with a great army and advanced into the province (706) of the king of the North, that is Seleucus Callinicus, who together with his mother Laodice was ruling in Syria, and abused them, and not only did he seize Syria but also took Cilicia and the remoter regions beyond the Euphrates and nearly all of Asia as well. And then, when he heard that a rebellion was afoot in Egypt, he ravaged the kingdom of Seleucus and carried off as booty forty thousand talents of silver, and also precious vessels and images of the gods to the amount of two and a half thousand. Among them were the same images which Cambyses had brought to Persia at the time when he conquered Egypt. The Egyptian people were indeed devoted to idolatry, for when he had brought back their gods to them after so many years, they called him Euergetes (Benefactor). And he himself retained possession of Syria, but he handed over Cilicia to his friend, Antiochus, that he might govern it, and the provinces beyond the Euphrates he handed over to Xanthippus, another general.

Verse 9 prophecies that Seleucus II would invade Egypt but would not be successful. This was answered in 240 BC when Seleucus II invaded Egypt but lost & had to return to his own land in shame.

NASB New American Standard Bible®, Copyright © The Lockman Foundation 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995. All rights reserved. Used by permission.


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