◄350-230 BC | Timeline 240-120 BC (Inter-Testamental Period Part 2) | 120-1 BC►
Notes on the Nations
Books of the Bible
Notes on Israel
|Kingdom of Macedonia 315-168BC Demetrius II 239-229BC (10)||
Antigonus III (Doson) 229-221BC (8)
Philip V 221-2179BC (42)
Perseus 178-168BC (10)
168BC Macedonia Made a Roman
Kingdom of the Seleucids 323-64BC Seleucus II (Callinicus) 246-226BC (20) ISBE Seleucus III (Soter) 226-223BC (3) ISBE Antiochus III (The Great) 223-187BC (36) ISBE Seleucus IV (Philopton) 187-175BC (12) ISBE Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) 175-163BC (12) ISBE Antiochus V (Eupator) 163-162BC (1) ISBE Demetrius I (Soter) 162-150BC (12) ISBE Alexander Balas 150-145BC (5) Antiochus VI 145-142BC (12) ISBE Demetrius II (Nicator) 145-139BC(6) 129-126(3) ISBE Antiochus VII 139-127BC (12) ISBE Antiochus VIII (Epiphanes Philomater Callinicus "Grypus") 125-96BC(29)
Kingdom of Egypt (?-30 BC) Holman Bible Dictionary Kingdom of the Ptolemys 323-30BC Ptolemy III (Evergetes I) 246-221BC (25) ISBE Ptolemy IV (Philopator) 221-203BC (17) ISBE Ptolemy V (Epiphanes) 203-181BC (23) ISBE Ptolemy VI (Philometor) 181-145BC (36) ISBE Ptolemy VII (Evergetes II) 145-116BC (30) ISBE
Rome 1st Punic War 264-241BC 2nd Punic War 219-201BC 3rd Punic War 150-147BC
High Priests Onias II 240-218BC ISBE Smith's Bible Dictionary Simon II 218-185BC ISBE Smith's Bible Dictionary Onias III 185-175BC ISBE Smith's Bible Dictionary Jason 175-172BC ISBE Menelaus 172-162BC ISBE Alcimus 162-159BC ISBE Inter-Sacerdotium Unknown High Priest Jonathan Apphus 153-143BC ISBE 142 BC Leader & High Priest become one Office
The Maccabeans (Hasmonean Kingdom) 167-37BC Judas Maccabaeus 166-160BC (6) Jonathan 160-142BC (22) Simeon Tassi Leader/High Priest 142-134BC John Hyrcanus I Leader/High Priest 134-104BC
Maps Palestine after the Exile Alexander the Great's Empire The Division of Alexander's Empire ca. 275 BCE Palestine under the Ptolemies The Seleucid Empire and Antiochus III
Notes on Israel's Involvement With the Nations
Notes on Daniel’s Prophecy of the 70 Weeks
In this prophecy, Daniel is told the exact date that the Messiah would come to redeem Israel & the world. The Timetable starts “from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem”. This event happened on 14th March, B.C. 445 when the king of Persia Artaxerxes Longitmanus issued a decree that Nehemiah was to return to Israel & rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. The Prophecy on 6th April, A.D. 32 when The Messiah Jesus entered Jerusalem in Psalm Sunday.
Daniel is told of 3 timelines
The Hebrew word for “Weeks” (shabuwa or שבדצ) actually means seven or period of seven & can mean 7 days (Week) or 7 years (Sabbatical Year). So in this passage the term weeks should be read as 70 Sabbatical Years or 70 X 7 years. The Nation of Israel at the time of Daniel was using a calendar based on 12 lunar months of 30 days or 360 day years with an extra month added every few years to reset the calendar also known as a “Prophetic Year”. The 70 X 7 must be based on this 360 day Prophetic Year (see also Rev 11:3 where 1260 days = 42 months = 3 ½ years)
Seven weeks and sixty-two weeks
The first part of this timeline called “seven weeks” are 7 X 7 or 49 years refers to the actual rebuilding of Jerusalem that took 49 yearsThe second part of this prophecy called “seven weeks and sixty-two weeks” Includes the above 7 weeks plus the 62 weeks for a total of 69 weeks or 69 Prophetic Years. According to Sir Robert Anderson in his book Daniel in the Critic's Den these 69 Prophetic Years add up to 173,880 and when recalculated into Julian Years of 365 days ends on 6th April, A.D. 32 or that exact day that Jesus entered Jerusalem on Psalm Sunday
The 70th week
The last week or the 70th week is still to come & refers to the 7 years of the tribulation period where The “Prince” or Anti-Christ will Stop the daily sacrifice & declare himself God. After this, he will attack the nation of Israel & finish the prophecy
Notes on Daniel’s vision of World history from Cyrus to the Time of the End
For Daniel 11:1-9 see notes on Timeline 350-230 BC (Inter-Testamental Period Part 1)
Starting with Verse 10 & 11 we skip to the reign of Antiochus III (223-187BC) & Ptolemy IV (221-203BC) when in 217 BC, Antiochus III marched a army of 70,000 into Egypt but his entire army was wiped out & Antiochus III had to flee on foot. Antiochus III spent the next 16 years building wealth & a new army by invading the lands to the east. Ptolemy IV died in 203 leaving Egypt in the hands of a infant son named Ptolemy V Epiphanes (203-181BC). Two years later, Antiochus III took full advantage of the young leader by once again invading Egypt as is prophesied in verses 13-16. Israel was ruled by the Ptolemies at this time & treated the Jews with compassion. During this attack of Antiochus III, some Jews took advantage & attacked the fortress that Ptolemies had in Jerusalem. The Jews would soon regret this mistake. In 198 BC, Antiochus III occupied all of the land of Israel. A little fledgling empire to the east named Rome began to pose a threat to the kingdoms of Antiochus III as well as that of Ptolemy V. as a result of this new threat, in 192 BC, Egypt & Syria (Antiochus III) made a peace pact by having Antiochus III’s daughter Cleopatra marry the young Ptolemy V. Verse 17 is answered when Cleopatra chooses to side with her new husband against her father. Verse 18 is answered when the Roman consul Lucius Scipio Asiaticus stood against an attempt by Antiochus III to invade Greece. Antiochus III lost at every attempt against Roman & Pergamum forces. Finally, verse 19 is answered when Antiochus III is killed while attempting to plunder a temple.
Verse 20 describes the reign of Seleucus IV (187-175BC) who due to the heavy cost of defending himself against Rome began to tax Israel. In 175 BC he commanded his Tax Collector Heliodorus to plunder the Jewish Temple. Days later, Seleucus IV was killed by this same Tax Collector. Yet another verse of prophecy answered perfectly.
These three verses initiates a 16 verse prophecy of Antiochus IV (Epiphanes 175-163BC). When Seleucus IV died, Antiochus IV usurped the throne by having Seleucus IV youngest son murdered & while his oldest son was being held hostage in Rome. Antiochus IV soon gave the High Priesthood in Jerusalem to the highest bidder while he had the real high Priest Onias III (185-175BC) murdered, hence the prophecy in verse 22 pf the “prince of the covenant”.
Antiochus IV was true to this part of the prophecy as well in that unlike his predecessors, he used his newly conquered wealth to buy friends. He invaded Egypt a few times & won but to no great extent.
Antiochus IV & Ptolemy VI signed many peace agreements, neither of the kept to the agreements for long. At last Antiochus IV took much wealth from Egypt. Even though Antiochus IV returned from Egypt with much wealth, he still wanted the wealth in the Temple of Jerusalem. In 168 BC Antiochus IV invaded Egypt yet another time but this time he was greeted by Gaius Popillius Laenas a Roman consul who demanded that Antiochus IV leave Egypt. Rather the risk a war with Rome, Antiochus IV left Egypt & conceded it to Rome (Kittim is prophecy speak for Rome). Antiochus IV being the spoiled child that he was now vented all his anger at loosing Egypt against the Jews & the Temple of God. He burned a pig on the Alter of God & set up a image of Zeus in the Temple. This is why Antiochus IV is known as “the little Anti-Christ” because what he did will be copied by the future one world leader during the middle of the Tribulation. This “Abomination that causes Desolation” will feed the faith of the Jews until the time of the Maccabaeus when Israel drives out the Greeks for their blasphemes against God. Verses 33-35a describes the persecution of the Jews at the hands of Antiochus IV as well as later rulers. In verse 35b there is a subtle by significant brake in the prophecy with the words “until the end time”. From this point in the prophecy until the end of the book, the prophecy shifts to the last 7 years of world history known as the Tribulation.
NASB New American Standard Bible®, Copyright © The Lockman Foundation 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
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