The Divine Names and Titles.


By the Rev. Dr. Bullinger.

Taken from Things to Come Magazine, August, 1896


IN our last paper we spoke of the Ineffable Name of Jehovah. Now we come to notice the important fact that this Name is revealed in various combinations.

Jehovah, as we have seen, is the God of His covenant people, doing everything for them in grace and mercy for His own name's sake. Consequently, wherever we have the word "Israel," or "the people" Israel, we always find the name Jehovah associated with them. But when, by their sin or failure, they are for the time being out of His favour, we find not Jehovah, but Elohim (God). When, however, He again deals with them, even in chastisement to bring them to Himself, and to restore them, it is Jehovah that does it. (See Num. xx. and xxi., etc., etc.).

Jehovah is the God who supplies all the need of His people, and orders all that concerns them. Hence, the name is frequently coupled with some other word which expresses some aspect of what He IS to them, or what He will DO for them.

These combinations are, therefore, so many expressions of the great truth which is summed up in the New Testament revelation, "My God shall supply all your need."

The very manifestation of the name Jehovah illustrates this. It was in Ex. vi. 3-8, at a moment when He was appearing in grace and faithfulness to His Covenant which He had made with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob (Ex. ii. 23-25). His name had not reference to delivering from strong enemies, but to delivering a poor and needy people. A name, full, not of delivering strength, but of pardoning grace (Ex. vi. 6, 7). We will now take these Jehovah-Titles in order, and it will be seen that the historical order in which they are mentioned and revealed, is also the theological and experimental order.


Gen.xxii. 14.

The first great need of His people was a Sacrifice. Atonement must be made for them. A Substitute must be found and provided for them. Hence, in that important chapter (Gen. xxii.), where the great revelation is made, Christ is seen in two aspects of His atoning work: first in Isaac, and then in the Ram.

It was in "the mount of the Lord" that it was to be seen ( v. 14), one of the mountains in "the land of Moriah" — the place of which God had told Abraham. Twice this Divine telling is mentioned ( v. 2, 3). Three times is the "only son" mentioned (v. 2, 12, 16). Twice is it written "they went both of them together" (v. 6, 8), indicating the perfection of the covenant "ordered in all things and sure." Twice is the providing of the sacrifice referred to, in verse eight, where it is written: "God will provide Himself (Heb., for Himself) a lamb for a burnt offering," and again in verse 14, where it is stated in the now newly revealed title, "Jehovah-Jireh," Jehovah will provide!

As it required four great offerings to set forth all the aspects of Christ's death, and four gospels to set forth His life; so here we require two types to set forth God's provision. As Isaac, He was the only-begotten son, the willing sacrifice, obedient unto death; and as the Ram, the substitute actually suffering death; and then the type changes: in Isaac we see "the children of promise" (Gal. iv, 28), ourselves, His people, delivered to death, but delivered from death, by that Substitute who had been provided by Jehovah — the Lamb slain in. the eternal purpose from the foundation of the world.


Ex. xv. 26.

Beyond the brazen Altar, where sin had been once for all divinely judged and put away', was the brazen Laver, where defilement was divinely but constantly washed away. For "he that is bathed, needeth not to wash, except his feet'' (John xiii. 10). Hence, following on the provided atonement of the one all-sufficient sacrifice, comes the provision of the divinely provided Healer and Restorer. And this need arises from the fact that the moment deliverance is accomplished, and blessing bestowed, the adversary is at hand to question our title to it, and to mar and hinder our enjoyment of it. When Christ had just been owned by the voice from heaven as the Son of God (Matt. iii. 17), immediately the adversary questions His right to it (Matt, iv. 3). And so it is the painful experience; of all the sons of God. So it was when God called His son out of Egypt: the song of deliverance (Ex. xv. 1-2 x), is followed immediately, first by "no water" (v. 22), and then by the "bitter" waters of Marah (v. 23). But Jehovah's provision was at hand. "The Lord showed" (v. 2 5) Moses that which would make the bitter waters sweet, and immediately revealed Himself as "Jehovah-Ropheca," saying, "I am the Lord that healeth thee." He makes all our bitter things sweet, and that which is bitter to the old nature becomes sweet to the new. Yes, "Jehovah is my Shepherd, I shall not want," because He is Jehovah-Jireh, and provides for all my need. He is also Jehovah-Rophi, for He is my Restorer, "He restoreth my soul."


Ex. xvii. 15.

Close on the manifestation of Jehovah's saving and restoring grace comes conflict. The enemy is seen in chapter xvii., and it is a very remarkable enemy. Note it well! It is none other than "Amalek" with whom Jehovah will have perpetual war. It sets forth the unending conflict between the flesh and the Spirit, which will be carried on until we are delivered from these mortal bodies (Rom. vii. 24, 25). In the resurrection body — the new "Man-soul" — there will be no "Diabolonians"; only then shall all conflict cease! But till then we wage unceasing war with our Amalek. Here, it is, that Jehovah comes in and reveals the blessed fact that it is His warfare, and not merely ours! He identifies Himself 'with us. He has put the enmity (Gen. iii. 14), and He alone can subdue it. He is Jehovah-Nissi — the Lord my banner, and under that banner His people shall ever fight, and come out from that conflict "more than conquerors."

There is much confusion in the translation of Ex. xvii. 15, 16, and the difficulties, both of translators and revisers, are clearly shown by the notes in the respective margins. The true rendering as exhibited by Dr. Ginsburg's revised text is, "Jehovah is my banner; for he said, Surely the hand is on the banner of Jehovah; the war of Jehovah against Amalek is to be from generation to generation."

Yes, there must be perpetual war. The world, the flesh, and the devil will unceasingly oppose, and in that conflict none can conquer but those who can say "Jehovah is my banner," " He covereth my head in the day of battle" (Ps. cxl. 7).

And so Ps. xxiii. again agrees, "Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies," and thus, while we feast, He will fight. But the feasting must be on what, or rather on Him whom Jehovah has prepared — even Christ, and then He will do all the fighting.


Judges vi. 24.

If Jehovah fights, there must be victory. If we are to feast, there must be peace. Peace is the outcome of all conflict where Jehovah's banner floats above us. For He has "made peace" (Col. i.' Jo). "He is our peace" (Eph. ii. 14). " Peace with God" (Rom. v. 1). "The peace of God" (Phil. iv. 7). Hence Jehovah-Shalom is the title next revealed (Judg. vi. 24). There may be war without, but there will be peace within, so that, like Gideon, we need not fear. " He leadeth me beside the still waters" (margin, the waters of quietness).


Jer. xxiii. 6.

We have been brought, in these four titles, to the end of earthly things, and now in the next two we are carried forward to the future, when " a King shall reign in righteousness" (Is. xxxii. 1).

Jer. xxiii. is the prophecy of future glory, of those blessed days when Jehovah shall "raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a Ring shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. In His days, Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely; and this is His name whereby He shall be called, Jehovah-Tsidkenu — Jehovah our Righteousness" (Jer. xxiii. 5, 6). Yes! and "in those days " " Jerusalem shall dwell safely, and this is the name wherewith the (i.e., Jerusalem) shall be called, Jehovah-Tsidkenu" (Jer. xxxiii. 15, 16).

Why? Because the last revelation of this name is


Ezek. xlviii. 35.

"The Lord is there." "The name of the city from that day shall be," thus called, because "the Lord of hosts shall ieign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before His ancients gloriously" (Isa. xxiv. 23).

This is the order of the "Jehovah-Titles" according to the Divine order of the Hebrew Canon, but there remains another — a seventh, still in the same order of the books (for the Psalms come after Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible). Thus the historical order, in the books of the Bible, corresponds to the theological and experimental order according to the purposes of God.

In Psalm xxiii we have


Ps. xxiii. 1.

"Jehovah my Shepherd." This sums all up — for Jehovah-Jesus is "the good Shepherd" in death, giving His life for the sheep (Ps. xxii., and John x. 11).

He is "the great Shepherd" in resurrection (Ps. xxiii., and Heb. xiii. 20).

And He is "the Chief Shepherd in Glory" (Ps. xxiv., and 1 Pet. v. 4).

"Jesus — the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever." "His name is as ointment POURED FORTH" (Song i. 3), poured forth in His life — and poured forth in His death in which He was "a sweet-smelling savour."

Oh, who can tell how wondrously His name is revealed — exactly meeting us in our poverty and weakness, supplying our needs and satisfying our hearts.

Jehovah-Rohi 1 In dwelling on this divine title, we are not occupied with what He does, wondrous and blessed as it is; not with what He has, marvellous as it is; not with what He says, precious, faithful, and gracious as His words may be, but with what HE IS. "The Lord-Jehovah IS my Shepherd," my all in all.

Jehovah-Jireh — providing for my wants.

Jehovah-Ropheca — restoring my soul.

Jehovah-Nissi — fighting while I feast

Jehovah-Shalom — leading me in peace beside the wafers of quietness: the stormy waters to which He has said, "Peace be still."

Jehovah-Tsidkenu — leading me in the paths of righteousness for His name's sake.

Jehovah-Shammah — enabling me to say, in the darkest trials, yea, in the valley of the shadow of death, "Thou art with me." "The Lord is there."

Yes, it is what HE IS when He says, " I AM"!

Are we dead? He says I am the LIFE.

Are we lost? He says, I am the WAY.

Are we ignorant? He says, I am the TRUTH.

Are we perishing? He says, I am the BREAD OF LIFE.

Are we wandering? He says, I am the SHEPHERD.

Are we in darkness? He says, I am the LIGHT.

Are we dying? He says, I am the RESURRECTION.

Are we waiting? He says, I am the LIFE.

In a word, as He said to Saul,


Oh! precious Saviour, "Say unto my soul, I AM THY SALVATION." Then we can reply, "All my springs are in Thee." Then we shall have a Salvation perfect and complete — containing "wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption."

Surely in the face of these gracious and glorious truths we shall sing as never before:

"How sweet the name of Jesus sounds,
     In a believer's ear,
It soothes his sorrows, heals his wounds,
     And drives away his fear!"

Continued in Part 5