Christological Heresies

 

Docetists

Ebionites

Arians

Appollinarians

Nestorians

Eutychians

Proponents

Basilides

Valentinus

Patripassians

Sabellians

Judaizers

Arius, presbyter of Alexandria

Origen?

Appollinarius, bishop of Laodicea

Justin Martyr

Represented by Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople

Represented by Eutychius

Theodosius II

Time

Late 1st century

2nd century

4th century

4th century

5th century

5th century

Denial

Genuine humanity

Genuine deity

Genuine deity

Completeness of humanity

Unity of persons

Distinction of natures

Explanation

Jesus appeared human but was really divine

Christ had the Spirit after his baptism; he was not preexistent

Christ was the first and highest created being

The divine Logos took the place of the human mind

Union was moral, not organic-thus two persons. The human was completely controlled by the divine

Monophysitist; the human nature was swallowed by the divine to create a new third nature- a tertium quid

Condemned

No official condemnation

No official condemnation

Council of Nicea, A.D. 325

Council of Antioch, A.D. 378

Council of Constantinople, A.D. 381

Synod of Ephesus, A.D. 431

Council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451

Associated with

Evil of Material world.

Marcion, Gnostics

Legalism

Generation = creation

Logos=reason in all people

“Word-flesh” not “word-man” Christology

Concern for the unity and divinity of Christ

Argument against

If Christ was not human He could not redeem humanity (Heb. 2:14; I Jn. 4:1-3)

Only a divine Christ is worthy of worship (Jn. 1:1; 20:28; Heb. 13:8)

Only a divine Christ is worthy of worship; this view tends toward polytheism. Only a divine Christ can save (Phil. 2:6; Rev. 1:8)

If Christ did not have a human mind, he would not be truly human (Heb. 2:14; I Jn. 4:1-3)

If the death of Jesus was the act of a human person, not of God, it could not be efficacious

 (Rev. 1:12-18)

If Christ was neither a man nor God, he could not redeem as man or God (Phil. 2:6)

Major Opponents

Irenaeus

Hippolytus

Irenaeus

Hippolytus

Origen

Eusebius

Athanasius

Ossius

Vitalis

Pope Damascus

Basil

Theodosius

Gregory of Nazianzen

Gregory of Nyssa

Cyril of Alexandria

Flavian of Constantinople

Pope Leo

Theodoret

Eusebius of Dorylaeum