Vincent's Word Studies

Marvin R. Vincent, D.D.

Baldwin Professor of Sacred Literature in Union Theological Seminary New York.

The Epistle of Jude


This brief letter is assigned to the Judas of Mat 13:55, one of the brethren of Jesus, and of James, the author of the catholic epistle. It is a hotly debated question whether Peter's second letter or Jude's epistle is the earlier, and, consequently, which writer drew upon the other. It is quite evident, either that the one used the other's epistle or that both drew from a common source. A satisfactory decision is impossible in the present state of the evidence. The matter which is common to the two epistles, besides various scattered resemblances, is principally in Jude 3-18; 2Pe 1:1-5; 2:1-18 (see Ezra Abbot, Expositor, 2d series, iii., 139).

Besides the resemblance to Second Peter, the epistle is marked by its apocryphal references, especially to the Book of Enoch (see notes on Jud 1:9, Jud 1:14). In style it is terse and picturesque. “It is Greek as learned by a foreigner, and partly from books, and it is mixed up with Hebrew phrases.” It contains at least fifteen words not found elsewhere in the New Testament. Dean Alford says: “It is an impassioned invective, in which the writer heaps epithet on epithet, and image on image, and returns again and again to the licentious apostates against whom he warns the church, as though all language were insufficient to give an adequate idea of their profligacy, and of his own abhorrence of their perversion of the grace and doctrines of the Gospel.”

List of Greek Words Used by Jude Only

ἀποδιορίζω to separate Jud 1:19
ἄπταιστος without falling Jud 1:24
γογγυστής murmurer Jud 1:16
δεῖγμα example Jud 1:7
ἐκπορνεύω to give over to fornication Jud 1:7
ἐνυπνιάζω to dream Jud 1:8
ἐπαγωνίζομαι earnestly contend Jud 1:3
ἐπαφρίζω to foam out Jud 1:13
μεμψίμοιρος complainer Jud 1:16
παρεισδύω to creep in unawares Jud 1:4
πλανήτης a wanderer Jud 1:13
σπιλάς rock Jud 1:12
ὑπέχω to suffer, undergo Jud 1:7
φθινοπωρινός autumnal Jud 1:12
φυσικῶς naturally Jud 1:10

Taken from: "Vincent's Word Studies" By Marvin R. Vincent, D.D.

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