"The Names and Order"

of the Books of the Old Testament.

Part 4 of 4

By the Rev. Dr. BULLINGER.

Taken from: Things to Come Magazine, 1895


III. Kethuveem; or, "The Psalms,"


We come now to the third and last division of the Old Testament, called Kethuveem; or The Writings, i.e., the other writings; and by the Greeks the Hagiogropha or sacred writings. The Lord's name for this division was The Psalms, using the figure of Synechdoche by putting a part for the whole; i.e., calling the whole division by the name of one (its first) book, The Psalms. (Luke xxiv. 44.)

The Book of Psalms — "T'hilleem."


Our word Psalms is the Greek word ψαλμοί (psalmoi). This is the name given to the book in the Greek version. (The Septuagint.) This word occurs seven times in the New Testament. (Luke xx. 42; xxiv. 44; Acts i. 20; xiii. 33; 1 Cor. xiv. 26; Eph. v. 19; Col. iii. 16.) Our word Psalter is another Greek word, ψαλτήριον (psalleerion), a stringed instrument.

There is no proper correspondence between either of these titles and the Hebrew title which is T'hilleem, which is invariably translated praises. It is a verbal noun derived from the word Hal or Hallel, which we have as the first part of the word Hallelujah (praise ye Jah). The root meaning of the verb is first to jump or dance about as light does, then to throw light upon anything so as to illuminate it or glorify it Hence, the transition is easy, to praise, for Praising is setting anything in the light.

T'hillim then may mean glorious-doings or irradiations, which show forth God's glory and call forth praises. Exodus xv. 11, "Fearful in praises," i.e., to be feared for glorious actions.

Isaiah lxi. 3, "the garment of praise," i.e., a clothing of light (See Ps. civ. 2). Habakkuk iii. 3, " His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was filled with His praise," i.e.. with the glorious shining forth of His works which showed forth His praise.

The Psalms are called T'hilleem because they set God's purposes in the light, and illustrate them by causing them to shine forth to His praise. They cover the entire field of Old Testament revelation. God's purposes are set forth in history and prophecy, as they relate to Man, to Israel, or to the Earth; and light is thrown upon them.

Manuscript and Massoretic authorities, The Talmud,25 as well as the Ancient Versions (such as the Septuagint), divide the Psalms into

Five Books.

Book I. Psalms i.-xl., ending with a Blessing and double Amen.

Book II. Psalms xlii.-lxxii. ending with a Blessing and double Amen.

Book III. Psalms lxxiii.-lxxxix. ending with a Blessing and double Amen.

Book IV. Psalms xc.-cvi., ending with a Blessing and "Amen. Hallelujah."

Book V. Psalms cvii.-cl., ending with Hallelujah.

There are in all seven Amens, and twenty-four Hallelujahs.

Ancient Jewish Authorities assert that these five books correspond to the five books of the Law.26 Hence we may call

Book I. the Genesis Book,

Book II. the Exodus Book,

Book III. the Leviticus Book,

Book IV. the Numbers Book,

Book V. the Deuteronomy Book.

If we compare what is said above (pp. 9-16) as to the significance of the Divine names of these books we learn that—

I. Genesis is the book of the Beginning;

II. Exodus is the book of Redemption;

III. Leviticus is the book of the Sanctuary;

IV. Numbers is the book of the Wilderness;

V. Deuteronomy is the book of the Word.

These books set forth in the Light the purposes and counsels of God, past, present, and future, and each PsalmBook views these counsels and purposes in their relation to the special character of the corresponding Pentateuch-Book; the first Psalm in each book being the key to, and the epitome of the whole. The very first word of the Psalms— "Blessed" (lit. O the blessednesses) — indicates the only way of blessing for Man, for Israel, and for the Earth, viz., delight in, and conformity to, the Word of God.

Book I.

All the figures and illustrations are taken from Genesis. A careful study will reveal this and yield a rich reward.

MAN is seen fallen from his position of blessing (i.-viii.); at enmity with God, and that enmity culminating in Antichrist (ix.-xv.); but finally blessed by the gracious and glorious work of "the man Christ Jesus." (xvi.-xli.)

Book II.

Here again the figures and illustrations are from Exodus, while ISRAEL is the subject of God's counsels. We see Israel's Ruin (xlii.-xlix.); Israel's Redeemer (l.-lx.); and Israel's Redemption (lxi.-lxxii.).

The Great Redemption title, "Jah," occurs in the Pentateuch first in Exodus (xv. 13), and in the Psalms first in the second, or Exodus Book. (Psalm lxviij. 4.) It opens with Israel's oppression (xlii.) and ends with Israel's glory, (lxxii.)

Book III.

Here the purposes of God are seen in relation to the SANCTUARY. In its relation to man (lxxiii.— lxxxiii.); and in its relation to Jehovah, (lxxxiv.-lxxxix.) We have in nearly every Psalm some reference to the Sanctuary, Congregation, &c.

It opens with absence from the Sanctuary (lxxiii.) and the enemy within it (lxxiv.); and ends with God dwelling in the assembly of His saints, (lxxxix.)

Book IV.

In this fourth book we have the same counsels of God in relation to the EARTH. All the imagery is from the wilderness (mountains, hills, floods, grass, pestilence, trees, &c., &c.) Blessing for the earth is needed and desired (xc.-xciv.). Blessing for the Earth is anticipated (xcv.-c.). Blessing for the Earth is enjoyed (ci.-cvi.).

Book V.

All the purposes and counsels of God are centered in His WORD. Departure from that Word brought in the ruin upon Man, upon Israel, and upon the Earth. Only therefore through the Word can blessing be restored, and the curse removed. The book opens with Psalm cvii. which gives the key, " He sent His WORD and healed them, and delivered them from their destructions." While Psalm cxix. is the great psalm of the whole book; at once its key and its illustration.27

The Proverbs of Solomon— "Mishlai"


The Greek name is Paroimiai, which means any dark, clever, or sententious saying which shadows forth didactic truth. The Latin title in the Vulgate — Proverbia — gives us our English title, " Proverbs." But both of these are very poor representations of the Hebrew.

The Hebrew title, Mishlai, is from Mashal, to rule, to have or exercise rule. (See Genesis i. 18; iii. 16; Exodus xxl 8.) Then He who rules gives the form or pattern which is to be followed. Hence as applied to words it means words which are to govern or rule the life. This is the design of the Book of Proverbs, so-called. It is the book of God's moral government of the Earth. It is not a collection of human wisdom, but of divine rules for life in the Earth. They may be applied with profit even by those who are dead and risen with Christ Such have still to conduct themselves in a world into which sin has entered, but in which God is acting in a mysterious way in His providence, in a government which He exercises for the conservation of morality, and which manifests itself in the numerous perplexities of terrestrial life.

Man deceives himself by pride, but here God undeceives him as to his many seductive illusions. Man underrates the power of the tongue, the power of fools, and the power of women. God shows the power of each and warns of their dangers.

As to the latter of these three, God shows how in His providential dealings He can over-rule sin as a judgment on sin. Sin came through the woman; and God shows in the beginning of the book the power of "a strange woman" to bring to ruin; continues with the miseries which an odious, brawling, contentious woman can entail; and ends with the power of a virtuous woman to bring to honour, happiness, and prosperity.

Thus the proud reasonings of man are silenced by the wisdom of God.

It may be useful to add that the book is quoted in the New Testament as follows:

Job iii. 11, 12 in Heb. xii. 5, 6; Rev. iii. 19.
Job iii- 34 in James iv. 6.
Job xi. 31 in 1 Peter iv. 18.
Job xxv. 21, 22 in Rom. xii. 20.
Job xxvi. 11 in 2 Peter ii. 22.


Job — "Ey-yov."


The meaning of the name of Job furnishes the key to the book. It is from the verb Ah-yav, to be an enemy to. Its first occurrence is Genesis xxii. 17, and its meaning is seen in Exodus xxiii. 22. The fem. noun evāh is the word "enmity" in Genesis iii. 15.

Job's name is a participle pass., and hence means one on whom the enemy seeks to put forth his power, an oppressed one.

We see the enmity recorded in the book seeking to bring Job to ruin, but at the close we see whit the Holy Spirit by James calls attention to as "the end of the Lord." (James v. 11.) This is the great lesson.

When the enemy sought man's ruin in Paradise, "the end of the Lord" was announced in the promise of Him who should deliver and bless.

When he provoked David to number the people, "the end of the Lord" was to provide the site for the Altar and the Temple.

When he sifted the Apostles to get rid of the wheat, "the end of the Lord" overruled his efforts to the getting rid ot the chaff.

When he wounded the heel of Christ on Calvary, the work was accomplished which ensures the destruction of his power.

Though he be the willing agent in " the destruction of the flesh " (2 Cor. v. 5), " the end of the Lord " uses it for the saving of the Spirit

When he sends an angel to buffet God's saint (2 Cor. xii.), "the end of the Lord" is to use it as "a thorn for the flesh," and to overrule it for spiritual blessing.

Satan appears among "the sons of God," i.e.) the angels, as the Adversary (see i. 6, margin), but "the end of the Lord " is to send " a mighty angel " to lay hold of him and cast him into the bottomless pit.

Whenever he comes forth against a feeble saint, he meets the mighty God.

This is "the end of the Lord," and this is the lesson of the book of Job. Satan was allowed to bring all his forces to bear upon Job to compass his ruin, but "the end of the Lord" was to bring Job out of all his troubles, and to give a blessing twice as great as he enjoyed before.

So it will be not only with the individual saint, but with IsraeL "The Jew's enemy " has ever said, according to his first words, "I will pursue," etc. (Exod. xv. 9), and has done his utmost to destroy the nation; but when the day shall come for Israel to learn the lesson which Job learnt, and "repent in dust and ashes," Israel too will find out what *"˜the end of the Lord" means, and find the "double" blessing, "as the seed which the Lord hath blessed." See the whoje of Isaiah lxi.

Three, the number of Divine perfection, is stamped upon the book in a remarkable manner.

It consists of three parts:

(i.) The Introduction;

(ii.) The Discourses;

(iii.) The Conclusion.


(i.) The Introduction comprises three parts:

(1) Personal;

(2) The Adversary; and

(3) Personal.

(ii.) The Discourses are comprised in three divisions:

(1) those of Job with his Friends;

(2) with Elihu; and

(3) with Jehovah.

Those with the three friends likewise consist of three courses, and each course consists of three pairs of speeches.

Those with Elihu and Jehovah also consist each of three parts, while

(iii.) The Conclusion relates Job's

(1) Vindication;

(2) his Restoration; and

(3) his Double blessing.

The Five Megilloth.

These five scrolls form a constituent part of the Hagiographa, and in the most ancient manuscripts, as well as in the early printed editions, are given in the following order. This order is determined by the order of the Festivals on which they are read annually in the Synagogues; viz. —

1. The Song of Songs. — On the Feast of the Passover..

2. Ruth — On the Feast of Pentecost.

3. Lamentations — On the Fast of the ninth of Abib.

4. Ecclesiastes — On the Feast of Tabernacles.

5. Esther — On the Feast of Purim.

The Song of Songs— "Sheer Hasheereem"


In the Septuagint it is called ᾆσμα ᾀσμάτων (asma asmatōn), and in the Latin Vulgate Canticum Canticorum, which all have the same meaning, the Song of Songs. The name Canticles, sometimes given to the book, it will be seen, is from the Vulgate.

Sheer Hasheereem is a Hebrew mode of expressing the superlative degree by repeating the noun in the gfenitive plural, meaning the finest, the most beautiful, or the most excellent song. The same figure (Enallage) is seen in such expressions as Holy of holies (Exodus xxvi. 33), King of kings (Ezek. xxvi. 7), God of gods and Lord of lords (Deut x. 1 7), Hebrew of the Hebrews (Phil. iii. 5), the Heaven of heavens. (1 Kings viii. 27.)

Three individuals are the principal person?, and not two as is generally supposed; a shepherd, a shepherdess, and a king. The former is the object of the maiden's affection, and not the king. According to Dr. Ginsburg28 "this song records the real history of a humble but virtuous woman, who, after having been espoused to a man of like humble circumstances, had been tempted in a most alluring manner to abandon him, and to transfer her affections to one of the wisest and richest of men, but who successfully resisted all temptations, remained faithful to her espousals, and was ultimately rewarded for her virtue."

If the interpretation thus refers to a true story, then it is open to anyone to make an application of the Narrative.

The Jewish Commentators apply it to Jehovah and Israel. Christian Commentators apply it to Christ and the Church; but in either case the maiden must represent the one beloved; the shepherd, the one who loves her, and the king, the one who would come between with temptations and: allurements.

Read at the Passover it might be applied to Israel going forth to the One of whom it is said, u He loved the' people/' and despising all the riches and treasures of Egypt. The Passover was specially marked by expressions of love, exhibited in various ways.

Ruth — "Ruth"


This book is called simply by the name of Ruth, which means a friend, especially one brought in and made an intimate companion. It is from the root rahah, to feed or flourish, to afford sustenance; then, to feast upon or delight in any one (Prov. xiii. 30; xxviii. 7; xxix. 3), to treat as a friend.

Thus the book tells how Jehovah delighted to take, this: Moabite stranger and bring her into blessing with His chosen. people, uniting her so closely in blessing as to make her an ancestress of David the king, and of David's Son and Lord, as shown in the genealogy with which the book closes. It tells also of that redemption on the ground of which Gentiles are able to rejoice with God's people Israel.

Read at the Feast of Pentecost, it surely intimated how at that Feast Jehovah would pour out His Spirit upon all flesh (Joel ii. 28), as recorded in Acts ii. 16-21 (fulfilling Joel ii. 2S), and thus bring Gentiles into blessing, causing them to "rejoice with His people," as shown in Acts x-xiii.

Pentecost was not the foundation of the Church, but preliminary to "the day of the Lord," when the "glory" should follow the "sufferings." We know, however, how (he offer of Acts iii. 19-26 was rejected. (Acts xiii. 45-5?.) And then the "Mystery" or secret of the Church was revealed to Paul about this time, for Acts xiii. was about "fourteen" years before 2 Cor. xii. 2, when he says that he received the "abundance of the revelation."

Lamentations — "Ey-chah"

alas! or, o how!

The English title is from the Latin Lamentationes. The Septuagint has θρῆνοι (Threenoi), meaning the same thing.

The Hebrew Ey-chah is an exclamation of pain and grief — a howling, wailing cry.29

It is the first word of the book, and fitly describes its character.

The Massorah and the Rabbins v point out that the word was used three times of Israel by three prophets.

1. Moses, of Israel in her glory and pride. (Deut. i. 12.

2. Isaiah, of Israel in her dissipation and sin. (Isa. i. 21.

3. Jeremiah, of Israel in her desolation. (Lam. i. 1.)

This book is appropriately read on the Fast of the ninth of Abib. For on that day is commemorated five great calamities which befel the nation.

1. The return of the twelve spies, and the decree of the forty years' wanderings in consequence of the rebellion of the people..

2. The destruction of the first Temple by Nebuchadnezzar.

3. The destruction of the second Temple by the Romans under Titus.

4. The taking of Bether by the Romans under Hadrian, when 580,000 were slain.

5. The ploughing of Zion like a field, in fulfilment of Jer. xxvi. 18, & c.

The five elegies are arranged in a remarkable manner:

The first two (chapters i. and ii.) consist of 22 long verses of three lines each, each verse respectively commencing with the successive letters of the alphabet.

The third (chap, iii.) consists of 66 verses (3 x 22), each triad of verses commencing with the same letter; e.g. the first three lines commence with א (Aleph), the next three with ב (Beth), and so on through the 22 letters of the alphabet.

The fourth (chap, iv.) is arranged in 22 long verses of two lines each, also arranged acrostically.

The fifth (chap, v.) Lamentation is resolved into a prayer, and the acrostic arrangement gives way before the outburst of emotion. The only connection with the alphabet is that the number of the verses corresponds with the number of letters (22).

Ecclesiastes— "Coheleth"


Our title Ecclesiastes comes from the Vulgate through the Septuagint. Έκκλησιαστής, one who sits or speaks in the Assembly — a member of the Ecclesia or Assembly, hence our word Ecclesiastic. Luther called it Prediger, hence our alternative title "or the Preacher."

The Hebrew word Coheleth occurs seven times in the book,

a | Three times at the beginning (i. 1, 2, 12).

     b | Once in the middle (vii. 27).

a | Three times in the end (xii. 8, 9, 10).

Dr. Ginsburg points out in his Commentary on this book that Coheleth is not a proper name but an appellative, because in xii. 8 it has the article, and in vii. 27 it is construed with a feminine verb.

As to its meaning, it is derived from Cahal, to call (from which our English verb to call has come). Then it means to call together, assemble. Hence Coheleth means Collectress. References to the passages where the verb occurs show that it is invariably used for collecting persons, especially for religious purposes. The actual signification therefore is "an assembler of scattered people into the more immediate presence of God; a gatherer of those far off from God" Solomon did thus gather the people. (1 Kings viiL 1, 2, 5.)

Well therefore may this book be appropriately read at the feast of Tabernacles, for its burden is that "under the sun" all is vanity. Here, we dwell only in Tabernacles, and wait for the abiding realities to which the "greater than Solomon" will presently assemble and gather His people.



The title of this book bears the name of the principal character in it, in the Hebrew and its Versions. Otherwise it begins with the words, "Now it came to pass in the days of"30 In the Hebrew this sentence consists of two words, va-ychec beemai. The first of these words, va-yehee (now-it-came-to-pass), sounded in the ears of the old Rabbis like the word The Greek (οὖαί,' ouai)d Latin (vae) had a similar sound and character.

There is a tradition from the time of the Great Synagogue that whenever a Scripture commences with these words it always marks impending catastrophe.

Five Scriptures are pointed out as thus commencing, but to these we may add the fact that though events associated with sadness are to be related, yet they are in each case followed by other events which end in blessing.

(1) Genesis xiv. 1. begins with the war between the four kings and the five, and the troubles of Lot; but ends in the blessing of Abraham by the priest of the Most High God.

(2) Ruth i. 1 begins with the famine in the land of Israel; but ends with joy in the marriage of Ruth, who thus became the ancestress of David's Son and David's Lord.

(3) Isaiah vii. 1 begins with war against Jerusalem; but issues in the blessing of the promised Saviour. "Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a sod, and shall call His name Emmanuel."

(4) Jeremiah i. 3 begins with the events in the days of Jehoiakim, when was accomplished "the carrying away of Jerusalem captive"; but the promise of restoration is not far off. (See verse 11, &c.)

(5) Esther i. 1 begin? with the threatened cutting off of the nation; but ends with their joyful deliverance.

So that the times of trouble are in each case rehearsed in order that the final blessing may stand out all the more gloriously.

To the above examples we may add one from the New Testament, making six in all, Luke ii, 1, which needs no comment

Most Bible Students know that the Divine name is not written in this book. The Talmud31 suggests the reason by asking, "Where do we get Esther from the Law?" The answer is given, " Deut. xxxi. 18, and I will surely hide my face." In this book it is seen how the people forsook God, how He hid His face from them, and how that though He delivered them, His name is hidden in the book in the form of four Acrostics, which are the pivots on which the whole history turns.32

Daniel— "Daniel."


THIS book is named after the Prophet who received these revelations of coming judgment. His name, divinely given, agrees with the character of the book. It is the Apocalypse, of the Old Testament, as the Apocalypse is the Daniel of the New Testament.

Dani-el means God is Judge, or God will judge; and Bab-el means the Judgment of God.

The part which has specially to do with the Gentiles is written, not in Hebrew, but in Chaldee, e,g., ii. 4-vii.28, because that portion refers to the course and character of Gentile power.33

The Book reveals God's judgment of Israel and Jerusalem to delivering them into the power of the Gentiles; and God's judgment of the Gentiles as given into the hands of "the Son" of man." (vii. 9-14, 22.)

The title borne by Christ is "the Son of man,'' for this is; His title as Judge.34

Daniel is referred to by Ezekiel (xiv. 14-20), and by Christ. (Matt. xxiv. 15,) The Prophecy is therefore on the authority of Christ Himself, is genuine and authentic, and formed in His day an integral part of the Hebrew Canon.

Ezra-Nehemiah— "Ezra-Nehemiah.''


These two books are always presented as one in the MSS., and the early editions of the printed Hebrew Bible. The: Massorah treats them as one, under the single name of Ezra.35

The Sedarim or order of sections for public reading are ten in number, and run through what we call the two books, without a break, the first beginning with Ezra i. 1, and the tenth with Nehemiah x. 1 to end.

Ezra means He surrounded, protected, or helped, while Nehemiah means comforted by Jehovah, or the consolation of Jehovah. These books record, therefore, the events which show how Jehovah protected and comforted His people in times of trouble and difficulty, delivering them out of the hand of all their enemies.

Chronicles — "Divrai Hay-yahmeem"


The two books of Chronicles (like Samuel, Kings, and Ezra-Nehemiah) form only a single book in the MSS. and early printed Hebrew Bibles. The enumeration of the twenty-five Sedarim runs right through the two books without a break.

Unlike other books, it is not named from the first word or words, or from the author, or from the principal subject matter; but it has come down to us with this special title. No one can tell us by whom it was given. It comes with the same authority as the text.

Divrai Hay-yahmeem means literally words of-the-days. It is difficult to find an English equivalent which shall exactly represent this expression. "The course of events," or "current events," or "annals," &c. have been suggested, but they fail to represent the idea that these are words, and Divine words concerning those events: the Divine comment and judgment of those works, rather than the mere historical chronicle of them.

The Greek translators called the book Παραλειπόμενα (Paraleipomena), Things omitted, because they saw that many things are recorded here which are not contained in the parallel histories of Samuel and Kings.

Jerome discarded this, and called the book Chronica or Liber Chronicorum, from which we have our English title "Chronicles.".

The point of the Book is this — that while the same events are recorded, they are viewed from a different standpoint In Samuel and Kings we have the facts of the history; here we have the Divine words and thoughts about those facts. In the former books they are regarded from Man's standpoint; here they are viewed from the Divine standpoint.

Hence in Samuel (1 Sam. xxxi.) we have the bare history of Saul's death, but in 1 Chronicles (x. 13, 14) we have the Divine "words" on that event. "So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the Lord, even against the word of the Lord, which he kept not, and also for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to enquire of it and enquired not of the Lord: therefore He slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse." In 1 Samuel it was the true fact that the Philistines slew him; but in 1 Chronicles we are taken behind the history, and it is revealed to us that it was the Lord's doing,

So the actions of the Kings are represented as they stood in connection with the Lord or with His service.

A key to the design of the whole book is furnished by the way in which Hezekiah's reign is presented in the two books of Kings and Chronicles respectively. Hezekiah's reign consisted of two great classes of events — Religious and Secular; his Reformation of the Worship of Jehovah, and the ordinary historical events.

In Kings, the Religious Reformation is dismissed in three verses; while the Secular history has eighty-eight verses, or three chapters, devoted to it (2 Kings xviii. 7-30, xix. and xx.).

In Chronicles it is just the opposite. Three chapters (2 Chron. xxix., xxx., and xxxi.) or eighty-four verses are devoted to the great Religious Reformation; while one chapter (xxxii.) suffices to record the Secular history.

Other parallels may be similarly traced and worked out.

Thus we have the divine words respecting man's works, illustrating to us the important fact that "the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart." (1 Sam. xvi. 7.)


It is prescribed in the Law that every Israelite should carefully and regularly read its contents (Deut. iv. 9; xxxii. 46; xxxi. 10-12. Josh. i. 8; Psalm i. 2, &c.) From the impossibility to carry this out on the part of those who were engaged in daily labour, or who could not afford to buy the expensive scrolls, there arose the custom of the public reading of the word of God on the Sabbath-day.

There are two separate ways in which the text is divided.

The first is one in which the Pentateuch is divided into fifty-four sections, so that the Law may be read through in the course of each year. These are called Parashiyoth (from Parash to separate36 and are generally marked in the MSS. with the letter פ (Pe). Of these Genesis contains 12, Exodus 11, Lev. 10, Numb. 10,.Deut 11.

The second way is one in which the whole of the. Old Testament is divided into four hundred and fifty two sections, so that it may be read through on the Sabbath, in three years. These are called Sedarim (from Sadar, to arrange in order), and are marked in the M$S. with the letter ס (Samech). These do not necessarily coincide with the Parashiyoth.

Besides these there was the still further division of the Prophets, not consecutively, but into fifty-four sections, which we may call Special or "Proper Lessons." These might be read instead of the law. They are called Haphtara (from Phatar, to open, liberate, or free), signifying the liberating lesson, i.e., according to Dr. Ginsburg the lesson which liberates from the injunction to read the Pentateuch. See Acts xiii. 15, 27; xv. 21; Luke iv. 17.

These articles have now been reprinted and published separately by Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, Great New Street, London, E. C., price 4d. In the complete edition will be found Tables of these Parashiyoth and Haphtara, together with information as to the further divisions into Sedarim, Chapters, and verses.



25) Kiddushin 330.

26) See the Midrash on Psalm i. 1.

27) For the structure of the whole of these five books the reader is referred to A Key to the Psalms, by the Rev. Thomas Boys, M.A. Published by Eyre and Spottiswoode, Great New Street, London, E. C. Five shillings.

28) Commentary, Longmans, London, 1857.

29) It is preserved in our word jackal.

30) The two of the five Megilloth, which are historical, both begin with these words.

31) Kelim, 139.

32) See The Name of Jehovah in the Book of Esther, by the some author, price twopence.

33) So Ezra iv. 8-vi. 19, and vii. 12-27, where Israel is under Gentile power; and Jer. x. 11, which is a message to the Gentiles.

34) See Things to Come for November, 1894, p. 96. 29, Paternoster Row.

35) See Dr; Ginsburg's Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. 25, New Oxford Street, London, W. C.

36) Hence the word Pharisee.