The Greek Alphabet
 

Letter Name

Lower Case

Upper Case

Transliteration

Pronunciation and Notes

alpha

a

A

a

long open sound as in "father" (not "hay")

beta

b

B

b

 

gamma

g

G

g

gg (double gamma) is pronounced "ng" as in "angle"

delta

d

D

d

 

epsilon

e

E

e

short sound as in "bet" or "end"

zta

z

Z

z

 

ta

h

H

or ē

long open sound as in "hey" (not "feed")
written with a bar over the letter in transliteration

thta

q, J

Q

th

throat-less sound as in "thin" (not "this")

iota

i

I

i

short sound as in "sit" (not "white")
written without a dot over the Greek iota

kappa

k

K

k

 

lambda

l

L

l

 

mu

m

M

m

 

nu

n

N

n

 

xi

x

X

ks

combined "k" and "s" sounds, as in "fox"

omicron

o

O

o

short sound as in "box" or "off"

pi

p

P

p

 

rho

r

R

r

don't confuse this with the "pi"

sigma

s, V

S

s

regular s at the start or middle of words;
terminal
V is used at the end of words

tau

t

T

t

 

upsilon

u

U

u
(sometimes v  or y)

short sound halfway between "put" and "pit"
[more like French "tu" or German "

phi

f, j

F

ph

like the regular "f" sound in "photo"

chi

c

C

ch

breathy sound as in "Bach" or "chasm" (not "church")

psi

y

Y

ps

combined "p" and "s" sounds

omega

w

W

or ō

long sound as in "go"
written with a bar over the letter in transliteration