25th Dynasty
(194) 945-751BC
For events in Nubia between the end of the New Kingdom and the early eighth century BC, evidence is extremely meagre. Although the suggestion that Lower Nubia was depopulated during this period is probably an exaggeration, the population may have been less prosperous than in earlier times and perhaps reverted to a semi-nomadic economy or migrated to the more prosperous south. Sporadic references to viceroys of Kush during XXIst-XXIIIrd Dynasties indicate that some Egyptian pretensions to authority there were maintained, and elements of royal titularies and formal epithets from temple inscriptions in Egypt have been adduced as supportive evidence for an aggressive policy to regain Upper Nubia - but, if this were the case, there was no lasting effect. By the mid-eighth century the chieftains of Napata, the centre of the cult of Amun in Nubia, had become overlords of Nubia and were already entertaining pretensions to rule Egypt as well. The office of Divine Adoratrise of Amun becomes more and more important and royal daughters and sisters at Theban throne hold rule equally powerful as royal power.

 (21) 751-730
King of Napata, son and successor of Kashta. Came into possession of Upper Egypt and founded the XXV Egyptian Dynasty, named also Kushite or Napata Dynasty. After Tefnakht’s expedition he defeated Nimlot, the Tefnakht’s ally, crushed fleet of the Egyptian king and conquered Hermopolis. Coalition of northern kings, organized against Kushite king, apart from Tefnakht and Nimlot from Hermopolis included also prince Osorkon IV, Iupet II and Sheshonq V. Piankhi accepted tribute from all princes after defeating their garrisons in main cities, including Memphis. After religious celebrations in temple of Ptah at Memphis and Atum at Heliopolis, he returned to Napata from where he ruled over Egypt. Burial place  pyramid at el-Kurru.

Other Datings

752-717 (Dodson)
751-716 (Drioton)
747-716 (Aston, Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
746-713 (von Beckerath)
735-712 (Redford)

 (15) 716-695
Son of Kashta and Pabatma. After suppressing a revolt risen by northern princes and burning Bokchoris at a stake (according to Manetho) he ruled over Egypt. In face of still growing in  power Assirians he followed the policy of his predecessors, which was mainly based upon intrigues and making political alliances. Traces of Shabaka’s building activities are found both at Delta and to the south, including oases. Burial place  pyramid at el-Kurru, some pieces of equipment are preserved.


Other Datings

717-703 (Dodson)
716-702 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
713-698 (von Beckerath)
712-698 (Redford)

 (5) 695-690
Son of Shabaka and father of Tenutamen. His policy against Assiria was entirely more aggressive than that of his predecessors. He headed the army which set out in support of Jerusalem. In 701 BC antissirian coalition was defeated by Sanheryb at Eltekeh in Palestine. Hezekiah of Judah surrended to Assiria and paid heavy tribute to avoid ravage of Jerusalem. The Old Testament suggests that a plague in Assirian army saved Egyptians and Hebrevians from complete defeat. Herodotus in turn tells that retreat of Assirians was due to swarms of mice who ate up their weapon. Building activities of Shabataka are most pronounced at Thebes (chapel by Holy Lake at Karnak and reliefs at Luxor) but also at Memphis and Kawa. Burial place  pyramid 18 at el-Kurru. Some pieces of funerary equipment, skull and bones of Shabataka were found.

Other Datings

705-690 (Redford)
703-690 (Dodson)
702-690 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
698-690 (von Beckerath)


 (26) 689-664
Son of Piankchi and Abale. He is regarded as a ruler who re-united the Land. At that time the prince and actual ruler of Thebes was Montuemhat – the fourth prophet of Amun. Taharqa rebelled at Sydon in 677 BC which caused Ashaddon’s campaign as a result of which Lower Egypt fell into Assirian possession while Taharqa escaped to Thebes. In 669 BC Taharqa regained the rule over Delta from local princes.  Building activities of Taharqa refer to most splendid periods of Egyptian history and their traces can be found all over the Land. Most known are: temples at Sanam, Kawa, Atribis, Pnubs, Semna, Kasr Ibrim and numerous structures at Karnak and Theban district. Burial place  probably pyramid at Nuri, although it can not be excluded that  he was buried in another place at Sedeinga, in pyramid-tomb where blocks with the name of Taharqa and corpse of 50 years old man were discovered.