19th Dynasty
(263) 15180-1317BC
When Horemheb, the last king of XVIII Dynasty, died, apparently childless, Paramessu succeeded him as Ramesses I. Paramessu's family came from Avaris, the former capital of the Hyksos, and the role of its local god Seth, who had retained strong connections with the Canaanite god Ba'al, appears to have been comparable with that of Horus of Hutnesu in Horemheb's career. The Ramessid royal family considered the god Seth to be their royal ancestor, and a fragment of an obelisk, recently discovered on the seabed of the coast of Alexandria, shows Seti I as a sphinx with the head of the Seth-animal offering to Re-Atum. With Ramesses I began a new dynasty, although there is some evidence to suggest that the Ramessid pharaohs considered Horemheb as the true founder of the dynasty.

Rameses I
(Born Of Re)
(1) 1317BC
Son of Swti, the commander of royal archers. He held many weighty offices in army, he was later vizier and confidant of Horemheb, appointed by him as heir to the throne. As a vizier he ordered to build for himself a tomb at Gurob (Fayum Oasis) where also Ramesses’ wife (or relative) was buried. After he had been designated heir to the throne he built for himself a KV16 tomb in the Kings’ Valley. The king’s mummy was found in Deir el-Bahari DB320 cache and now is a property of Atlanta Museum (USA) while fragment of his sarcophagus can be seen in Kairo Museum. Ramesses I ruled one year and 4 months, as co-regent with his son and successor, Seti I.

Other Datings

1315-1314 (Redford)
1308-1307 (Gardiner)
1307-1306 (Arnold)
1306-1304 (Hornung)

1305-1303 (O'Connor)
1304-1303 (Parker)
1298-1296 (Dodson)
1295-1294 (British Museum, Grimal, Málek, Shaw, Kitchen)
1293-1291 (Murnane, Wente)
1292-1290 (Krauss, Helck, von Beckerath)

Sethi I
(He Of Seth)
(16) 1317-1301BC
Son of Ramesses I by Satre. After coming to the rule he was forced to undertake series of war campaigns to Asia and Libya. He made wars with Hittites, conquered the land of Amurru and city of Kadesh. In his 8th regnal year he made war expedition to the land of Jam in Sudan. History records of his warlike deeds add splendor to walls of many Egyptian temples. He erected magnificent temple at Abydos and a number of building structures all over Egypt, among others great hypostyle of the temple of Karnak, mortuary temples in Western Thebes and Memphis. He erected temple of Amun at Napata in Nubia, as well as in other cities. Many temples, destructed during Amarna period, were restored and covered with new reliefs and polychrome. He started building new capital of Ramessides in the Delta. Burial place of the ruler became the finely decorated tomb KV17 in the Kings’ Valley. The king’s mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahari cache DB320.

Other Datings

1314-1304 (Redford)
1308-1294 (Gardiner)
1306-1290 (Arnold)
1304-1290 (Hornung)
1303-1290 (Parker)

1296-1279 (Dodson)
1294-1279 (British Museum, Grimal, Málek, Shaw)
1291/89-1279 (Wente)
1290-1279 (Helck)
1290-1279/8 (von Beckerath)

Rameses II
(Born Of Re ; Beloved Of Amun)
(67) 1301-1234BC
Son of Seti I by queen Tui. He had 7 legal, royal wives and 200 concubines. Historical sources record that he had 96 sons and 60 daughters. Ramesses II was regarded one of the mightiests (if not the one mightiest) Egyptian pharaohs. Certainly he is the best known ruler of ancient Egypt and a symbol of this land. Three facts went into the making thereof: tremendous building activity, traces of which can be found all over Egypt; active internal policy and presence of military force keeping strong position of Egyptian Empire as well as immensely long rule, comprising 67 years. He was crowned the king after his father’s death in June 1279 BC. In his 4th regnal year he made first military campaign into Syria which resulted in relieving of the principality of Amurru ruled by Betneshina. The next year took place battle at Kadesh by Orontes. The course of this most famous in Egyptian history battle is recorded in wall presentations of temples at Abydos, Thebes and Abu Simbel, also in papyri and is called Poem of Pentewere. Egyptian sources present the battle as a great triumph of Egyptian army and pharaoh Ramesses II in person, Hittite sources - in contrary. The fact that in consequence the land of Amurru had been annexed to Hittites’ influence zone allows us to conclude that closer to the truth are Hittite sources which record failure (if not complete defeat) of Egyptian army. Next over a dozen-or-so years Ramesses was making numerous war campaigns into Syria-Palestine, consolidating his own influence zone. Treaty made in 1258 with Hittites warranted in writing non-aggression and mutual relieving of political refugees. This is an oldest known historical document made between two foreign countries. In 1245 and 1240 BC to the royal harem arrived two Hittite princesses thus consolidating the peace with the land of Hatti. There are known to us expeditions to land of Jam in Sudan in year 21 of Ramesses reign and to Nubia in year 44, under command of Setau, the viceroy of Kush. Ramesses II reinforced fortresses in the Western Delta which protected from the “sea people” attacks and Libyan tribes. Building activity of the king exceeds that of any other pharaoh and counting out at least part of buildings erected or restored in his times seems to be impossible. There is no city in Egypt where the ruler would not have left traces of his building activities. Temples in Western Thebes (Ramesseum) and Abu Simbel are masterpieces of ancient Egyptian architecture. Near Tanis (Pe-Ramesu) he completed erecting a capital started by Seti I. During his 67 years long rule Ramesses II celebrated 14 times Sed festival.
Burial place of the ruler was tomb KV7, the one of most finely decorated tombs in the Kings’ Valley, unfortunately now is vastly damaged by water and mud. The king’s mummy primarily moved to tomb of Seti I was finally concealed in the Deir el-Bahari cache DB320 and discovered in 1881. In front of his own tomb Ramesses ordered to build huge tomb KV5, discovered in 1995 by K.R. Weeks. It was meant to serve as a collective tomb of numerous sons of Ramesses. Burial place of the king’s first wife, the queen Nefertari, became a tomb QV66 in the Queens’ Valley.

Other Datings

1304-1237 (Redford)
1294-1227 (Gardiner)
1290-1224 (Arnold, Hornung)
1290-1223 (Parker)

1279-1213 (Helck, Málek, von Beckerath, Shaw, Krauss, Kitchen)
1279-1212 (British Museum, Grimal, Dodson, Wente)

(Beloved Of Ptah ; Joyous Is Truth)
 (12) 1234-1222BC
The thirteenth son of Ramesses II, his mother was queen Isetnofret I. He ruled as co-regent for 12 years, after holding an office of a general. Manetho mentions his 19 years and 6 months long rule. This duration is entirely overestimated unless co-regency with Ramesses II is considered. The most significant event during Merenptah’s rule was repulse of Libyans’ and Sea Peoples’ attacks in his year 5. Presumably he lead also victorious campaign into Asia as recorded in “stele of Israel”, the only preserved document confirming existence of this small tribe in Western Asia, both proudly and untruthfully described in Bible. Building activity of Merenptah focused mainly in Western Thebes and Memphis from where mortuary temple erected of blocks gathered from pulled down Theban temple of Amenhothep III and palace and sacral complex devoted to Ptah and royal cult should be mentioned.
Burial place – tomb KV8 in the Kings’ Valley. His mummy was found in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II

Other Datings

1237-1226 (Redford)
1224-1214 (Gardiner, Arnold)
1224-1204 (Hornung)
1223-1211 (Parker)

1213-1204 (Helck, Kitchen)
1213-1203 ( Málek, von Beckerath, Shaw, Krauss)
1212-1202 (British Museum, Grimal, Wente)
1212-1201 (Dodson)

Sethi II
(He Of Seth ; Beloved Of Amun)
(6) 1222-1216BC
There is no certainty if he was a son of Merenptah by queen Isetnofret or, as suggest E.F. Wente and J.R. Harris, he was not related to the dynasty at all. Assuming that Amenmose was usurper we can conclude that Amenmose ruled over Thebaida for some time under Seti II’s rule in Lower Egypt. It is no doubt however that Seti II ordered to remove decorations from Amenmose’s temple in the Valley of the Kings. Seti II founded a station for a barge on the courtyard in front of the pylon II at Karnak, and chapels of Theban triad – Amun, Mut and Chonsu. He was buried on the day 11, month 3 of the peret season (winter) in tomb KV15 in the Kings’ Valley. The king’s mummy was moved to the tomb KV14 of Taweseret in her last year of reign and after Sethnakht’s ascended a throne returned to its previous burial place. Finally it was deposed in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.

Other Datings

1221-1215 (Redford)
1216-1210 (Cambridge Ancient History)
1214-1204 (Arnold)
1206-1200 (Parker)

1204-1198 (Helck)
1203-1200 (Krauss)
1202-1196 (Grimal)
1201-1195 (Dodson)
1200-1194 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Hornung, Kitchen)
1200/1199-1194/93 (von Beckerath, Wente)

(Son Of Ptah ; Beloved Of Ptah)
 (7) 1216-1209BC
Son of Seti II by his Syrian concubine. He was changing his titulary while holding his rule. It should be assumed that he was merely in his 14 as he inherited the throne because he died aged 20 as revealed analysis of his mummy. In his behalf the rule was held by Taweseret, his step-mother. Another interesting figure of those times was chancellor Bay, usurping the right to the rule. Tomb of Bay was found in the Valley of the Kings – KV13. Based upon the Harris’ papyrus Bay is usually identified with “the Syrian of Yarsu” and died presumably some time before Siptah. Burial place of Siptah – tomb KV47 on the Kings’ Valley. The king’s mummy was found in the Amenhotep II KV35 tomb-cache.

Other Datings

1215-1209 (Redford)
1204-1198 (Arnold)
1200-1194 (Parker)

1198-1193 (Helck)

1196-1190 (Grimal)
1195-1189 (Dodson)
1194-1188 (British, Museum, O'Connor, Málek, Shaw, Hornung, Kitchen)
1194/3-1186/5 (von Beckerath)
1193-1185 (Wente)


(Mighty Lady ; Chosen Of Mut)
(8) 1209-1201BC
Wife of Seti II, step-mother of Siptah. As Seti-Merenptah, the son of Taweseret (or Takhat) and Seti II, who was the legal heir, died prematurely, the throne was passed to Taweseret’s minor stepson – Siptah. The queen held rule as regent in his behalf and after death of 20-years old king she overtook it also formally. She started even counting length of her reign including years of regency. That’s why Manetho ascribed to her 7 years of rule. The reason for decline of Taweseret’s rule was conflict with Sethnakht. Burial place – tomb KV14 in Kings’ Valley.

Other Datings

1209-1201 (Redford)
1198-1196 (Arnold)
1196-1188 (Grimal)
1194-1192 (Parker)
1194-1186 (O'Connor)
1193-1190 (Helck, Krauss)
1189-1187 (Dodson)
1188-1187 (Kitchen)
1188-1186 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Hornung)
1186-1185 (von Beckerath)
1185-1184 (Wente)