10th Dynasty
(90) 2130-2040BC
A sequence of rulers of Dynasties IX and X is very problematic. These intellectuals - as generally accepted, are well known thanks to either splendid monuments or relics of literature or finally – military contacts with Theban nomarchs. They formed local dynasties. They are ignored in tables of Abydos and Saqqara. Chronological sequence of their names, let alone the dating, causes many difficulties, at least for present state of knowledge. In case of some rulers it is even impossible to assign them specifically to any of the two Dynasties. In case of some rulers it is difficult to ascribe them with certainty to any of the two dynasties IX or X, especially that identifying two dynasties ruling at that time by Manetho seems to be a mistake.

(All Dates Unknown)

(Golden Are The Souls Of Re)
(All Dates Unknown)
According to J. von Beckerath he was father of Merikare and author of the famous Precepts. Other scholars however suggest that he was his predecessor, possibly Merikare’s grandfather.

Wahkare Achthoes III
(All Dates Unknown)
Author of famous Precepts for king Merikare in which he instructs his son how to deal with the royalty. After a description of social crisis, taking place in the I Intermediate Period, the ruler explains the ways to restore order and regain a lost glory of the monarchy. The Precepts are the top achievement in the period of so-called moralistic literature, in which the very sublime ethical aspects alternate with subtle analysis of the rules of internal and external politics.

(All Dates Unknown)

Son of Achtoes (Kheti). He was the addressee of famous Precepts inscribed in hieratic papyrus now deposed in St. Petersburg, Russia. At the times of king Merikare Thebes were ruled by Antef II and Antef III. He was buried in pyramid called WAD-swt-mry-kA-ra (Places of Merikare enjoy prosperity), built at Saqqara. Its precise location is unknown but it might have been the ruined pyramid east of pyramid of Teti at Saqqara.


(All Dates Unknown)